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121 Multiple-benefit potential may change the prioritization of 5. Create a prioritized countermeasure list for your facility. countermeasures. For example, some mitigation measures 6. Consider multiple-benefit potential information to deter- can both decrease maintenance and increase the usable life of mine if your list should be re-prioritized. the structure. This dual benefit could lead to significant cost 7. Study again the relevant sketches and text in Sections 5.4.1, savings over the life of the structure. The identification of 5.4.2, and 5.4.3, and finalize your priority list. multiple-benefit potential is based on realistic expectations of what may be done with the countermeasure, including the If more detailed information than that provided herein is following potential benefits: needed to justify a selection, an in-house or outside expert can be used to develop conceptual designs and associated Pedestrian safety, costs of possible countermeasures. Traffic surveillance, The following abbreviations and cost scales have been used Public assurance, throughout Tables 34 through 41: Anti-theft, Anti-trespassing. Text Above Tables Detection of unqualified employees, PV = Physical Vulnerability Decrease maintenance, OV = Operational Vulnerability Increase usable life of system, DP = Damage Potential of a Successful Attack Erosion protection, Protection of data integrity, Column 3: Relative Effectiveness Protection of investment in data systems, and L = Low Dock scheduling (for shipping). M = Medium H = High VH = Very High Countermeasure Number The last column of the countermeasure guides identifies Column 4: Order-of-Magnitude Cost the countermeasure number. Countermeasures 1 to 19 are L = Low = up to $1 million recommended minimum measures and are described in M = Medium = between $1 million and $3 million detail in Section 5.4.1. Countermeasures 20 to 27 are recom- H = High = between $3 million and $10 million mended measures for an elevated threat conditions and are VH = Very High = over $10 million described in detail in Section 5.4.2. Countermeasures 28 through 50 are recommended perma- Column 5: P/OP nent enhancements and are described in detail in Section 5.4.3. P = Physical Op = Operational 5.3.3 How to Use the Countermeasure Column 6: Strategy Guides DR = Deter The following steps should be followed in using the coun- DT = Detect termeasure guides (Tables 34 through 41): I = Interdict M = Mitigate (Includes Response and Preparedness) 1. Review the tables to further eliminate certain hazards and threats based on existing knowledge or inspection of 5.4 Countermeasure Descriptions countermeasures that are already in place or not possible based on restrictions such as operating environments and The following sections describe in detail the countermea- clearances. sures listed in the countermeasure guides. Since the continu- 2. Identify all possible countermeasures for your facility, and ous operation of a facility is a primary goal of a tunnel owner make a list of countermeasure numbers from the last col- or operator, each of these mitigation measures should con- umn of Tables 34 through 41 to be reviewed. sider the effect that construction will have on operations. In 3. Study the relevant sketches and text in Sections 5.4.1, 5.4.2, some cases, the cost of service interruption may outweigh the and 5.4.3 to become familiar with the details involved. cost of construction. Whenever possible, construction should 4. Go back to Tables 34 through 41 to weigh relative effec- be performed from the outside of the tunnel as opposed to tiveness and order-of-magnitude costs of identified coun- the inside to avoid interruption of ongoing operations. Other termeasures. considerations should include dynamic clearance envelopes