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152 CHAPTER 6 System Integration 6.1 Introduction interrelationships of these systems and integrates them so that they operate as a whole. The seemingly disparate safety and security countermea- sures identified in Chapter 5 may be incorporated into an integrated system. This approach uses a system methodology 6.2.1 People to improve tunnel safety and security. Tunnel Personnel Training of tunnel operation and maintenance personnel 6.2 System Safety and Security is an important and integral component of ensuring tunnel System safety and security is the systematic application of safety and security. Tunnel personnel can be a key element to engineering, technology, and management tools to identify, deterring, detecting, and responding to a safety or security analyze, and control hazards and threats within operational, incident. Tunnel personnel should be trained to recognize budget, and time constraints. It encompasses all of the inte- suspicious packages, activity, and behavior and to react gral factors that make up a tunnel system: accordingly. They must also be taught how to respond to an actual safety or security incident. In order to carry out these People--tunnel operating and maintenance personnel, the responsibilities, tunnel personnel must have a basic under- public, emergency responders, and vendors. standing of their role as the eyes and ears of tunnel operations Operating procedures--routine operating procedures, and of their responsibility for safety and security. They should emergency procedures due to a security or safety incident, be trained to recognize things that are out of the ordinary and and measures implemented due to a particular hazard or to identify suspicious actions that might constitute pre-attack threat. activity. In particular, their instruction should include the dif- Engineering and technology systems and controls--com- ference between unattended packages and suspicious pack- munication systems, ventilation systems, intrusion detec- ages, as well as what constitutes a suspicious security event. tors, lighting, fencing, and so forth. When all unattended packages and unwarranted activity are Physical aspects of the tunnel structure. deemed "suspicious," unnecessary disruption of the tunnel system occurs. Tunnel personnel should also have a clear Each of these elements, independently, provides some understanding of the proper procedures for reporting and degree of safety and security. However, when combined, they responding to an event. significantly improve safety and security. Tunnel operation Specific technical training should be afforded to central and maintenance personnel, for example, can be trained to control personnel or others who are responsible for activat- recognize and report suspicious behavior in and around a ing emergency systems, such as ventilation and fire suppres- transportation tunnel. Fences and barriers define areas where sion systems (i.e., dry standpipes), or de-energizing traction unauthorized personnel are not permitted. Lighting aids in power systems in rail transportation tunnels. the observation of activity. When these disparate systems are Lastly, tunnel personnel training should include coordina- integrated, the likelihood of deterring and detecting a secu- tion with the many agencies and departments that may be rity incident is greatly increased. An effective safety and secu- necessary during the management of a tunnel security inci- rity system can be developed when one understands the dent, such as police, fire and rescue departments, emergency