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153 medical services, and other forms of technical assistance. This departments, tunnel safety/security departments, and emer- training should include the following: gency responders (including fire and police). These proce- dures serve as guidance during the response to a safety or An overview of the incident command system (ICS), security incident and include specific actions that are to take Coordination with emergency responders, and place by tunnel operation and maintenance personnel, cen- Evacuation protocols. tral control staff, and other tunnel staff. The procedures should include the following: Emergency Responders Reporting protocol; Tunnels can be viewed as inherently hazardous. Vehicular Facts to be collected and evaluated; and train traffic, traction power in rail tunnels, and the con- Verification protocol; fined nature of the space all challenge and impact emergency Protection of the scene; response capability. Tunnel operators should develop formal Limiting vehicular and train traffic; training programs for emergency responders. The training Right-of-way safety; should consist of the following: Vehicle safety (transit, rail vehicles, and special vehicles); Removal and restoration of traction power; Inherent hazards--vehicular traffic, rail traffic, and trac- Activation of emergency systems, including ventilation and tion power (rail systems only). dry standpipe system; Right-of-way safety. Assistance in rescue and evacuation operations; Tunnel life safety systems--ventilation, fire detection, fire Deployment of roving patrols; suppression and hydrants, points of egress, and rescue Posting of guards; areas. Hazardous materials restrictions; Communication systems--capabilities and limitations and Background investigations of employees and vendors; emergency telephone locations. Inspections of vehicles, cargo, and persons; Training aids--checklists, facility diagrams, and so forth. Bomb-sniffing dogs; Credentialing; and Command protocol. The Public The public can play an important role in reporting suspi- The cornerstone of the procedures is the sharing of infor- cious packages and activities. A public security awareness mation and responsibilities between emergency responders campaign can be designed to heighten the security awareness (fire, law enforcement, and emergency medical services) and of the public. The public should be encouraged to be aware of the tunnel owners and operators. When designing programs their surroundings and to look for suspicious or unusual to respond to safety and security incidents, understanding activity. The campaign should emphasize the following: the activities to be performed is essential. These activities must take place in advance of developing specific response What to look for, protocol. How to report the information and An interorganizational memorandum of understanding or What tunnel emergency elements are available (exits, evac- agreement (MOU or MOA) is the basis for acknowledging uation procedures, fire extinguisher locations, emergency what resources each organization will provide during a telephone locations, and so forth). response. The FTA's Transit Watch program is an example of a pub- lic security outreach program. 6.2.3 Engineering and Technological Systems and Controls 6.2.2 Operating Procedures Engineering Systems and Controls An effective response to any safety or security incident Fire protection, fire detection, ventilation systems, lighting, includes predetermined response procedures for both tunnel fencing, and barriers are among the engineering controls that operators and emergency response personnel. The founda- support tunnel safety and security. These measures provide tion for the procedures is an emergency plan that establishes access control for deterring an attack, assist in the detection the policies and guidelines for the procedures. The proce- of intruders, and limit the damage potential of an incident dures are typically jointly developed by tunnel operation due to fire or toxic gases and substances.