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OCR for page 154
154 Technological Systems and Controls helps to maintain the structural integrity. See Section 5.4 for more detailed information. Technology systems and controls encompass a wide range of measures, including, but not limited to, access control sys- tems (identification card readers, intrusion detection systems, 6.3 Security System Integration CCTV, communication systems, and C/B/R detectors). Each of the systems should be evaluated to determine what is suit- Integrated security measures can deter a potential security able for the particular application. In order to make this incident by making it more difficult to execute, increase the determination, it will be necessary to know the operational likelihood of detection, minimize the damage potential of an aspects of the security system and how the security system incident, and aid in response and recovery efforts. As an will be used. Consequently, successful deployment of a tech- example, the use of intrusion technology can assist in both nology requires the development of a needs assessment, the deterrence and detection of an intruder, thereby perhaps desired performance characteristics, and training of staff to preventing a terrorist attack or simply the destruction or van- operate and maintain the technology. The technology will be dalism of property. Roving patrols and guards coupled with a based on the hazard or threat assessment. Study of the tech- detection system can be used to monitor unauthorized access nologies currently available determines current capabilities. into a tunnel and its associated facilities. Table 72 illustrates how the various countermeasures deter, An integrated security system design must take into con- detect, and respond to a hazard or threat. sideration the physical aspects of the operating environment, the performance capability of the systems, and the personnel requirements for operation and maintenance. As previously 6.2.4 Physical Aspects of the Tunnel discussed, an integrated security system consists of Structure Physical aspects of the tunnel structure include length, People, cross section, portal locations, cross-passage locations, and Operating procedures, other points of access. Physical hardening of the tunnel struc- Engineering and technology systems and controls, and ture minimizes the damage potential of a hazard or threat and Physical aspects of the tunnel structure. Table 72. How countermeasures deter, detect, and respond to hazards and threats. Deterrence Detection Response Operational Tactics Operational Tactics Operational Tactics - Roving patrols - Intelligence - Command and control - Bomb-sniffing dogs - Security awareness (multi-tenant) - Background checks of training of operating - Evacuation protocol employees and contractors and maintenance - Information sharing - Background checks of facility personnel - Tunnel ventilation vendors - Roving patrols - Portable fire extinguishers - Access control - Guards at entry Technology - Credentialing and identification points card system - Bombing-sniffing - CCTV system - Guards at entry points dogs - Communication - Intelligence - Identification card - Chemical/biological/ radiological monitoring - Hazardous material restriction system - Inspections - Explosive detectors - Inspections - Interface with traffic Technology Technology monitoring - CCTV - Intrusion detectors - System integration - Intrusion detectors - Identification card readers Engineering - System integration - Chemical/biological/ - Fire protection Engineering radiological detectors - Lighting - Blast design - Seismic/stress - Ventilation - Elimination of hidden corners, detectors alcoves, and shelves - Mobile monitoring - Open, unimpeded lines of sight - Explosive detectors - Lighting - System integration - Locked facility doors Engineering - Fire detection

OCR for page 154
155 Before a system can be integrated, adequate resources should systems to the integrated system. For instance, allowances be allocated to planning, defining the system requirements, and might be made for the future integration of a new digital implementing the design stages of the project. An assessment CCTV system. must be carried out to determine the capability of the existing Assessment must be an ongoing exercise. For example, if system, the present requirements, and possible future require- voice-over IP (VoIP) communications are to be added to ments. Some of the major considerations are as follows: an Ethernet local area network (LAN), then an assessment should be made to determine if the response time of an System codes and standards--Appropriate standards emergency system on the same LAN is still acceptable. should be used to ensure that each of the systems is capa- Traditional safety-related systems have well-defined ble of being assembled into an integrated system. These safety boundaries that can be assessed for availability and standards should address system components, including integrity. When a system is integrated, the influence of communication protocols, communication interfaces, data other MEC systems can blur the safety boundaries and dictionaries, and message sets. degrade the safety system. It is important to ensure that this Designing to standards such as Synchronous Optical does not happen. The damage potential of the integrated Network (SONET), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), system failing should also be assessed for each case. As an and Ethernet allows operability between manufacturers. example, a tunnel ventilation system does not usually have Future system requirements are always difficult to predict, a default fail-safe running condition, and a supervisory and an upgrade path for computer and communication command must be received to set the mode of operation systems should always be available. For instance, in order (i.e., supply or exhaust) to properly drive the smoke and to accommodate future upgrades as improved technology heat away from escaping passengers. becomes available, one may specify standard rack- Integrated legacy systems--When introducing new tech- mounted and blade servers as well as a SONET platform, nologies into an existing system, compatibility must be which is scaleable from OC 48 to OC 192 by upgrade of the considered. If possible, consideration should be given to optics. Other applicable standards are available from the introducing an interface rather than changing the existing architecture. Electronics Industries Association (EIA), the International When interfacing to a legacy (i.e., existing) communica- Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the American tion system, the hardware interface is typically relatively National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Institute of Elec- straightforward. The more complicated issue tends to be trical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and others. the software. If a software driver is not available for the sys- Individual code requirements should also be assessed. tem writing, a new driver for the communication protocol For example, integration of a fire alarm system must take can range from trivial to extremely difficult and expensive. into account the requirements of NFPA 72: National Fire It is very important for the owner or operator to give guid- Alarm Code, as well as the requirements of UL Standard ance on how to accurately specify this work so that a sys- 827: Standard for Safety for Central-Station Alarm Services. tem integrator can assess the degree of difficulty before Device compatibility--A primary decision in the design bidding the job. There are also costs associated with main- phase is determining which interfaces need to communicate tenance and support of the third-party communication with each other and whether these interfaces are human or software. electronic. Interoperability of the security devices needs to be considered to ensure functional compatibility. The following are typical steps for developing an integra- An integrated system has many advantages, including a tion strategy: common operator interface for individual MEC systems, common alarms, and a real-time database. An integrated 1. Identify proposed locations for the operational control system offers the flexibility to view and control the indi- center and backup secondary control center. Size require- vidual systems from different locations and to export data ments can be considered after the system assessment is to external agencies. However, integrating systems is carried out. expensive, especially for older systems. Therefore, before 2. Establish a communication backbone, taking into con- integration is undertaken, one should carefully evaluate the sideration potential cost of integration as well as budget limitations. Bandwidth requirements (this is covered in more Data communication--Data communication must be detail below); considered when integrating different systems. Technology choices (i.e., SONET, ATM, and Ethernet); A typical system upgrade might accommodate a and planned increase in communication bandwidth and data Physical structure, redundancy, and diverse routing of requirements along with a phased migration of MEC fiber links.