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156 3. For each individual system, identify performance crite- 6.4 Information Sharing ria, functionality requirements, code requirements, and level of security (safety-critical, safety-related, and so The aforementioned guidelines are particularly critical for forth). Also identify fall-back requirements. transportation tunnels. Because it is not uncommon for 4. Determine whether or not each individual system can be transportation tunnels to cross municipal or governmental integrated. For example, the video channels to be taken boundaries, these tunnels may have multiple users or tenants. back to the control center and the real-time performance Response to an emergency incident typically requires close requirements will determine the bandwidth of a CCTV coordination among the multiple users, including law system. It must be determined if this bandwidth can be enforcement, fire departments, and emergency medical serv- accommodated on the communication backbone. ices from the responding jurisdictions. The tunnel operating 5. Determine the level of integration that can be achieved authority or agency has the primary responsibility for emer- within the budget. gency management planning and initiation of an immediate 6. Assess the worst case (i.e., maximum) bandwidth that response to incidents. However, a coordinated response includes all possible commands necessary during an inci- among all entities involved is critical to minimizing the dam- dent (equipment control, multiple alarms, traffic moni- age potential of the incident or event. It stands to reason that toring and control, frequent VoIP communications, and integration of tunnel systems, such as CCTV systems, is war- so forth). ranted. It is desirable to track suspects or events that move 7. Evaluate the computer architecture, including the fol- from one jurisdictional boundary to another within the tun- lowing: nel environment. Without a coordinated and integrated sys- Client server, tem, such tracking is not possible. Peer-to-peer architecture, Tunnel tenants and users should have emergency Redundancy issues, response plans for their respective operations that address Expansion capability, emergency response coordination. The tunnel owners and Real-time performance, and operators must ensure that all stakeholders--including ten- Database requirements. ants; emergency response agencies at the local, state, and 8. Choose an off-the-shelf or custom-made supervisory federal levels; and municipal or governmental jurisdictions, control and data acquisition (SCADA) software design as appropriate--are actively involved in the development of based on the desired performance level and budget. an all-hazards emergency response plan that outlines roles 9. For each system, determine system integration options, and responsibilities, coordinates efforts, and integrates each levels of interoperability, and whether migration paths tenant user. can be achieved with the integrated system. 10. Conduct a phased replacement program of the obsolete 6.5 Conclusions systems. 11. Design the operations control center theater, including System safety and security are the systematic application of desks and the video wall. engineering, technology, and management tools to identify, 12. Determine the power supply requirements, including the analyze, and control hazards and threats within operational, uninterrupted power supply with backup generators. budget, and time constraints. Systems encompass all of the 13. Ensure that devices are hardened or concealed to guard integral factors that make up a tunnel, including people, oper- against tampering and vandalism. Network access and ating procedures, engineering and technology systems and data communications should be secured by firewalls, controls, and the physical aspects of the tunnel structure. password protection, encryption, and authentication. Each of these elements independently provides some degree 14. Perform testing and simulation to ensure the functional- of safety and security. However, when combined, they signif- ity of the system. icantly improve safety and security.