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159 electronic files to narrow down and identify the possible 7.6 Summary of Lessons Learned countermeasures for his or her facility. Lessons learned from the case studies in Chapter 3 could be published, along with the further research described in this 7.3 Collaboration with European chapter. This document would be a learning tool for all trans- Research Programs portation tunnel owners and operators. U.S. researchers could collaborate with new European research programs to stretch the dollars that are available for 7.7 Best Practices Manual tunnel safety research. Eight particularly promising research projects were launched by the European Union after the seri- A best practices manual for road tunnels has been devel- ous road tunnel fires beginning with the Mont Blanc Tunnel oped by PIARC and was published in 2005 [Ref. 23]. It fire in 1999: Durable and Reliable Tunnel Structures addresses quality, safety and risk management, maintenance (DARTS); Fire in Tunnels (FIT); Cost-effective, Sustainable and operation, training and emergency exercises, renovation and Innovative Upgrading Methods for Fire Safety in Exist- of tunnels, risk evaluation tools, and financial decision- ing TUNnels (UPTUN); SafeTunel; VirtualFires; Safe-T; Sir- making tools. Using the results of this report, similar research taki; and L-Surf. Several of these projects have been could develop a best practices manual for transit and rail completed, and the remainder will conclude shortly. tunnels. To keep the drive and the unique accumulation of scientific and pragmatic potential of their consortia, as well as to foster networking activities worldwide, the eight projects have pro- 7.8 Changes in Operation Protocols posed to launch a Committee on Operational Safety of to Enhance Safety Underground Facilities (COSUF). This committee will be Operation protocols currently being employed by existing under the umbrella of the ITA, in close cooperation with the transportation tunnel agencies could be reviewed, along with PIARC. the protocols proposed by various standards and guidelines. A list of changes or improvements to the existing operation 7.4 Effects of Fire on the Tunnel protocols that would enhance the safety and security of the Structure country's transportation tunnels could be developed. The document entitled, "Guidelines for Structural Fire Resistance for Road Tunnels" [Ref. 21], published by ITA and 7.9 Sample Emergency Response jointly prepared by ITA and PIARC, addresses the impact of Procedures fire on road tunnel structures. Similar research could address the impact of fire on transit and rail tunnel structures. Using recommendations promulgated by organizations such as the NFPA and PIARC, a set of sample emergency response procedures could be developed that would 7.5 Effectiveness of Current Tunnel address all potential emergencies. Using this set of sample Fire Detection Systems emergency response procedures, a tunnel owner or opera- tor would be able to create a facility-specific set of emer- Researchers could assess the effectiveness of the myriad fire gency response procedures, including an emergency detection systems that are currently available for tunnel appli- response plan (ERP). cations, including linear detectors, spot detectors, visibility- measuring devices, radiation heat detectors, gas detectors, and video detectors. 7.10 Owner Orientation Workshops Currently, the NFPA Research Foundation, in conjunction with the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC), is A program to conduct a series of interactive owner orien- conducting a research project that addresses the effectiveness tation workshops could be developed at a national (but not of current fire detection systems in road tunnels [Ref. 22]. international) level, such as the meetings conducted by Ten detection systems will be tested, including linear detec- AASHTO, the International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike tors, CCTV (flame and smoke) detectors, flame detectors, Association (IBTTA), and the ITA. The purpose of these and spot detectors. Tests will be conducted in both a test tun- workshops would be to provide tunnel owners and operators nel and an active functioning tunnel. This project might pose with the opportunity to understand the rationale behind this an opportunity to cosponsor research with the NFPA and the report and the report's potential impacts on their particular NRCC. tunnels.