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161 7.14.2 Tunnel System Elements The Tunnel Engineering Handbook [Ref. 25] provides six chapters addressing guidelines for the design of tunnel system In ASHRAE's handbook, titled Heating, Ventilation and Air elements: Conditioning (HVAC) Applications, a chapter (titled "Enclosed Vehicular Facilities") discusses the design of envi- Chapter 19: Fire Life Safety, ronmental and smoke control systems for all types of trans- Chapter 20: Tunnel Ventilation, portation tunnels [Ref. 33]. Chapter 21: Tunnel Lighting, The NFPA provides two standards that address the design Chapter 22: Power Supply and Distribution, of tunnel system elements related to fire protection: Chapter 23: Water Supply and Drainage Systems, and Chapter 24: Surveillance and Control Systems. · NFPA 130: Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Sys- tems Standard [Ref. 2] and The recently published Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety · NFPA 502: Road Tunnels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access [Ref. 26] contains five parts addressing the key elements of Highways Standard [Ref. 5]. tunnel fire life safety: In addition, the NFPA provides guidelines for the design of Part I: Real Tunnel Fires, the fire protection and emergency response aspects of trans- Part II: Prevention and Protection, portation tunnels, including transit, rail, and road [Ref. 27]: Part III: Tunnel Fire Dynamics, Part IV: Fire Safety Management and Human 14.3 Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems Factors, and 14.4 Rail Transportation Systems, and Part V: Emergency Procedures. 14.7 Fire Protection for Road Tunnels. 7.15 More Effective Fire Detection PIARC has in its library of published documents a report Systems entitled,"Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels" [Ref. 27], Using the results from research like that noted in Section which contains technical chapters providing guidelines on the 7.5, researchers could continue to develop more advanced following: detection systems. This effort will require a program to enlist the support, cooperation, and input from the industry, I. Objectives of Fire and Smoke Control, including manufacturers of fire detection equipment and II. Fire Risk and Design Fires, systems. III. Smoke Behavior, IV. Study Methods, V. Ventilation for Fire and Smoke Control, 7.16 Industry Feedback Workshops VI. Exits and Other Safety Facilities, A program to conduct several interactive feedback work- VII. Tunnel Reaction and Resistance to Fire, and shops could be developed at least 2 years after the imple- VIII. Fire Response Management. mentation of this report to assess the impact of the report on tunnel safety and security. The primary function of In addition, PIARC has a soon-to-be-published report these workshops would be to gather feedback from tunnel entitled, "Systems and Equipment for Fire and Smoke Con- owners and operators on the implementation process and trol in Road Tunnels" [Ref. 35], which will contain technical the successes and failures of the philosophy espoused in the sections further addressing fire and emergency guidelines for report. This feedback could then be used to update and tunnels, including the following sections: improve the report for later versions or to produce supple- mentary documents. · Smoke Progress at the Beginning of a Fire, · Safety Concepts for Tunnel Fires, 7.17 Interactive Electronic Version · Lessons Learned from Recent Tunnel Fires, of this Report · Ventilation, · Emergency Exits in Enclosed Road Structures, The purpose of an interactive electronic version of this · Fire-Specific Equipment, report would be to permit the tunnel owner or operator to · Design Criteria for Structure Resistance to Fire, and more easily access the information contained herein. Specifi- · Operational Responsibility for Emergencies. cally, a database that contains the structural and system