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162 vulnerability tables (Tables 14 through 16 and 25 through 27, accompanied by associated database software. A suggested respectively), the hazard and threat directories (Tables 28 outline for such a manual is as follows: through 33), the countermeasure guides (Tables 34 through 41), and the countermeasure descriptions (Sections 5.4.1 1. Introduction through 5.4.3) would allow the owner or operator to system- 2. Purpose of inspection atically go through the step-by-step process of identifying 3. Inspection requirements possible mitigation measures specific to his or her facility. Staffing Equipment 4. Inspection protocol 7.18 Effectiveness of Current 5. Database development and management Tunnel Fire Suppression 6. Tunnel evaluations Systems Rating system Further research could evaluate the effectiveness of current 7. Conclusions fire suppression systems, including manual wet and dry 8. Appendixes standpipes and fixed systems. Manual wet and dry standpipes must be deployed by the incident responders. Fixed systems-- such as sprinklers, deluge, and water mist systems--can be 7.22 Advanced Coordinated Control activated, either automatically or manually from a control Schemes for Ventilation center, prior to the arrival of the incident responders. Sprin- Systems kler and deluge systems can be water based or foam based and can be operated automatically or manually from a control Researchers could use the technology available to develop center. Some work in this area is currently underway within more advanced control systems for tunnel ventilation and fire PIARC and within the European community. A number of protection systems. new and/or improved systems, such as water mist, are already under development. 7.23 Test Tunnels or Models Researchers could build test tunnels or models to verify or 7.19 Retrofit Technologies to measure structural damage from different explosions under Enhance Safety security-related threats. Although this idea is good, condi- tions could change from project to project, resulting in too Working with the industry, researchers could identify all many variables. For example, test tunnels could be based on retrofit technologies that, when applied to an existing trans- the principal types of tunnel construction, various types of portation tunnel, will assist in addressing some of the issues surrounding earth, and/or underwater conditions. Several identified herein. This research would have an overall positive agencies are presently spending large amounts of money on impact on the safety and security of transportation tunnels. nonlinear finite element blast analyses. Because test results may impact total project costs, this report would be a useful 7.20 More Effective Tunnel Fire guide for engineers for future design work so that public Suppression Systems funds could be spent effectively. Using the results of the research work being done by the 7.24 Structural Blast Damage NFPA and PIARC, researchers could continue to develop Potential Analyses more advanced fire suppression systems. This effort will require a program to enlist the support, cooperation, and At the present time, there are tremendous uncertainties in input from the industry, including manufacturers of fire sup- estimating and evaluating the relationship between varying pression equipment and systems. hazard and threat levels (e.g., explosive weight) and damage potential to various types of tunnels and their structural ele- ments. It is very difficult to adequately perform a tunnel vul- 7.21 Tunnel-Specific Inspection nerability assessment based on available data without resorting Manual to more refined analyses. Similarly, due to the lack of data, it is A tunnel-specific inspection manual could assist the tun- also difficult to properly develop warranted retrofit schemes nel owner or operator in inspecting and surveying his or her and costs. Researchers could work on the development of more specific tunnel and properly recording the inspection find- reliable empirical charts that relate explosive weight to struc- ings related to safety and security. The manual would be tural damage potential. This research work could be