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164 References Cited in the Report 1. The Blue Ribbon Panel on Bridge and Tunnel Security, Paper presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Trans- "Recommendations for Bridge and Tunnel Security," The portation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2005. American Association of State Highway and Transporta- 13. Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, Memorial Tunnel Fire Test tion Officials (AASHTO) Transportation Security Task Ventilation Program, Comprehensive Test Report, prepared Force, September 2003. for Massachusetts Highway Department/Federal Highway 2. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Fixed Guide- Administration, 1995. way Transit and Passenger Rail Systems Standard, NFPA 14. UPTUN, TNO Building and Construction Research Cen- 130, 2003 Edition. tre for Fire Research Board, and Promat Tunnel Fire Pro- 3. International Tunneling Association, "Immersed and Float- tection, Summary of Large Scale Fire Tests in the ing Tunnels State of the Art Report," Working Group No. Runehamar Tunnel in Norway, edited by J. Brekelmans BSc 11, Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, Perga- and Rene van den Bosch BSc, September 2003. mon Press, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 1993. 15. T. L. Youd and I.M. Idriss, "Evaluation of Liquefaction 4. H. Zosen, "Shield Tunneling Machines," Company Resistance of Soils," Proceedings of the NCEER Workshop, Brochure, Tokyo, Japan, 1984. Technical Report NCEER-97-0022, 1997. 5. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Road Tun- 16. J. Wang, "Seismic Design of Tunnels A Simple State-of- nels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways Stan- the-Art Design Approach," William Barclay Parsons Fel- dard, NFPA 502, 2004 Edition. lowship, Parsons Brinckerhoff Monograph No. 7, 1993. 6. K. Terzaghi, "Geologic Aspects of Soft Ground Tunnel- 17. C. H. Dowding and A. Rozen, "Damage to Rock Tunnels ing," Applied Sedimentation, P.D. Trask, edited by John from Earthquake Shaking," Journal of the Geotechnical Wiley, New York, 1950. Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 104, No. GT2, February 7. R.E. Heuer, "Important Ground Parameters in Soft Ground 1978. Tunneling," Subsurface Exploration for Underground 18. G. N. Owen and R. E. Scholl, "Earthquake Engineering of Excavation and Heavy Construction, New England Large Underground Structures," Federal Highway Admin- College, Henniker, New Hampshire, ASCE, New York, istration, RD-80/195, 1981. pp. 4155, 1974. 19. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering 8. D. Grote, S. Park and M. Zhou, "Dynamic Behavior of Con- Research (MCEER) Draft Report, Seismic Retrofitting Man- crete at High Strain Rates and Pressures," Journal of Impact ual for Highway Structures: Retaining Structures, Slopes, Engineering, Vol. 25, 2001. Tunnels, Culverts and Pavement, January 2002. 9. Department of the Army, Fundamentals of Protective 20. U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Transit Design for Conventional Weapons, U.S. Army Technical Administration, "The Public Transportation System Secu- Manual TM 5-855-1, 1986. rity and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide," Final 10. S. Choi, "Tunnel Stability Under Explosion," William Bar- Report, January 2003. clay Parsons Fellowship, Parsons Brinckerhoff Monograph 21. H. A. Russell, Animateur, International Tunnelling Associ- No.19, 2004. ation (ITA), Working Group 6, Repair and Maintenance of 11. J.R. Lawson, L.T. Phan and F. Davis, "Mechanical Prop- Underground Structures, "Guidelines for Structural Fire erties of High Performance Concrete After Exposure to Resistance for Road Tunnels," 2005. Elevated Temperatures," NISTIR 6475, National Institute 22. The Fire Protection Research Foundation, "International of Standards and Technology, 2000. Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project," 2005. 12. A. Caner, S. Zlatanic and N. Munfah, "Assessment of Fire- 23. World Road Association (PIARC), Good Practice for the Induced Damage on Concrete and Shotcrete Tunnel Liners," Operation and Maintenance of Road Tunnels, 05.13.B, 2005.

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165 24. J. Bickel, E. King and T. Kuesel, Tunnel Engineering Hand- 30. The American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Steel book, Chapman & Hall, Second Edition, 1996. Construction Manual, 13th Edition, 2006. 25. W. F. Chen and J. Y. R. Liew, Civil Engineering Handbook, 31. American Welding Society, ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M-2006 second edition, CRC Press, 2002. Structural Welding Code: Steel, 2006. 26. A. Beard and R. Carvel, The Handbook of Tunnel Fire 32. American Welding Society, ANSI/AWS D1.4/D1.4M-2005 Safety, Thomas Telford, 2005. Structural Welding Code: Reinforcing Steel, 6th Edition, 27. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Fire Protec- 2005. tion Handbook, 19th Edition, 2003. 33. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- 28. American Concrete Institute, "Building Code Requirements Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), HVAC Applications for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02) and Commentary Handbook, 2003. (ACI 318R-02)," 2005. 34. World Road Association (PIARC), Fire and Smoke Control 29. American Concrete Institute, "Code Requirements for in Road Tunnels, 05.05.B, 1999. Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures (ACI 35. World Road Association (PIARC), Systems and Equipment 350-01) and Commentary (ACI 350R-01)," 2001. for Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels, 2006.