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18 than 50 others. The bomb exploded at about 8:15 p.m. near Myers, S.L. (2004, Feb. 7). "39 Die in Moscow as Bomb the Rizhskaya station in northeast Moscow, located near one Goes Off on Subway Train." The New York Times, pp. 1, 5. of the city's major thoroughfares. Although it was after rush "Russia Blames Chechens for Blast" (2004, Feb. 6). hour, the subway and surrounding area were busy because it CBSNEWS.com. Available: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/ was the last day of summer vacation and many people were 2004/02/06/world/main598395.shtml. (Accessed Nov. 27, returning home. Many subway passengers were also return- 2004). ing to their homes from the center of Moscow, thereby con- MSNBC.com. "2 Men Reportedly Detained Over Moscow tributing to crowds at the station and in the area. Blast: Russian Officials Call for Tighter Controls After Bomb- The explosion did not affect the subway directly, but two ing Kills 39" (2004, Feb. 7). Available: http://www.msnbc. parked cars in the area were set on fire and passersby were msn.com/id/4187981/print/1/displaymode/1098/ (Accessed injured by the metal fragments, the smoke, and shattered glass Nov. 27, 2004). from shop windows. The explosive used in the bombing was Weiss, M. & Soltis, A. (2004, Feb. 7). "Moscow Blast Spurs Hexogen, which was the same explosive that had been used on NYPD Terror Mission." New York Post, p. 2. August 24, 2004, to explode Russian civilian aircraft on domestic flights that originated in Moscow. 3.2.2 Jungangno (Chungang-Ro) Subway It was not determined whether the bomber had intended to Station Arson Fire detonate herself inside the subway, but there were reports that she had been walking toward the station and turned around Location: Daegu, Korea when she saw two police officers near the entrance checking Date: February 18, 2003 documents and searching bags. Instead, she set herself aflame Incident Category: arson fire in an area between the subway station and the Krestovsky Tunnel Length: N/A; subway system station department store and supermarket complex nearby. Lending Fatalities and Injuries: 198 fatalities, 147 injuries, 50+ credence to the view that the subway station had been her tar- missing get, the 29-year-old Chechen woman who set the explosion was Note: Jungangno and Daegu are the preferred English the sister of the woman suspected of detonating the blast on spellings of the station and city name as translated by the City one of the two planes that were blown up on August 24, 2004. of Daegu and the Daegu Metropolitan Subway System. The large number of bombings resulted in problems for Moscow's hospitals, which have become trauma centers on a Synopsis continuing basis. At about 10 a.m. on February 18, 2003, a mentally unstable subway passenger trying to commit suicide threw flammable References liquid inside a car of a Daegu, Korea, subway train that was Arvedlund, E.E. (2004, Feb. 8)."Ride During Moscow Rush carrying 600 people. Although passengers tried to stop the Ends Under Pile of Bodies." The New York Times, p. 8. arsonist from lighting the liquid with a cigarette lighter, igni- Baker, P. (2004, Sept. 1)."Suicide Bombing Kills 10 Outside tion occurred as the train pulled into the underground Jun- Moscow Subway: Attack by Woman Follows Sabotage of Two gangno station, four levels beneath Daegu's central city. The Jetliners." Washingtonpost.com. Available: www.washington arsonist escaped through the closing doors just as the train post.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A49376-2004Aug31. (Accessed Nov. burst into flames. The fire was fueled by flammable seats and 27, 2004). other interior car furnishings. The system's control center CBSNEWS.com (2004, Aug. 31). "Deadly Blast Hits allowed another six-car train traveling in the opposite direc- Moscow." Available: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/ tion to enter the tunnel moments after the first train burst into 08/31/world/main639738.shtml. (Accessed Nov. 27, 2004). flames. The doors of the second train locked shut when its Dougherty, J. (2004, Feb. 6)."Moscow Metro Blast Kills 39." driver stopped the train in the tunnel and removed the master CNN.com. Available: http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/ controller key, trapping passengers inside as the train cars europe/02/06/moscow.blast/index.html. (Accessed Nov. 27, filled with smoke and noxious fumes from the burning train. 2004). MILNET Brief, "Chronology of Russian Terrorism, Analysis of Pre-Incident Information and Events 1/1/1990 to 9/02/2004." http://www.milnet.com/Russian- Terrorism.html. (Accessed May 28, 2006). Daegu is Korea's third largest city and has 2.5 million resi- CNN.com."Moscow Suicide Bomber Kills 9"(2004,Aug. 31). dents. It is a textile center in the south of the Korean Penin- Available: http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/08/31/ sula, about 200 miles (322 kilometers) southeast of Seoul. russia.carblast/index.html. (Accessed Nov. 27, 2004). Construction of the 16-mile (25.7-kilometer), 30-station

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19 Line 1 of the Metropolitan Subway began in 1992 and was saying, "It's a mess. It's stifling. Take some measures please. inaugurated in two stages in 1997 and 1998. It was extended Should I evacuate the passengers? What should I do?" The toward the southwest in 2002. The Jincheon-to-Jungangno control center only advised the driver to drive carefully as he segment opened to passengers November 26, 1997. The entered Jungangno station, since there was a fire. The driver Jungangno-to-Ansim segment opened on May 2, 1998, and approached the station, stopped the train in the tunnel, exited the 2,300-foot (700-meter) Jincheon-to-Daegok segment the cab, and removed the master controller key. This locked opened on May 10, 2002. Hanjin Heavy Industry manufac- the doors shut, trapping passengers inside the train as its cars tured the subway cars. filled with smoke and noxious fumes. While the Daegu Metropolitan Subway prided itself on its The fast-moving fire was fueled by the train's seats and incorporation of the latest in safety technology when it began other interior products that were not fireproofed. This was, in construction, the Jungangno fire was one of five major inci- part, because national safety standards for train interiors were dents associated with the line since construction commenced not introduced until 1998, 1 year after revenue service began in 1992. In January 1994, supporting equipment at a subway in Daegu. Prior to this date, Hanjin Heavy Industry used fire- construction site collapsed, leaving one man injured. A gas retardant materials only in cars made for export. explosion near another subway construction site injured 143 and killed 101 bystanders (including eight schoolboys) in Fatalities and Injuries April 1995; it was deemed the worst subway accident in the nation's history. Because of that accident, the Daegu govern- In August 2003, Daegu officials confirmed that 198 people ment suspended construction of the system's Line 2 for sev- had died in the fire, at least 147 were injured, and approxi- eral weeks. Another explosion in August 1995 resulted in four mately 50 people were unaccounted for. casualties. In January 2000, a subway section under construc- tion collapsed, killing three people and closing part of the Fire and Emergency Response city's main road. In January 2002, a bus passing an intersec- tion near a subway construction site killed and/or injured In an eerie echo of the September 11, 2001, terrorist four people. The station where the arson occurred had passed attacks in the United States, families reported receiving cell a safety check approximately 5 months prior to the incident. phone calls from loved ones trapped in the incident before officials were aware of it. This had also occurred during the Tauern Tunnel fire in Austria in 1999, when a truck loaded Analysis of the Incident with paint collided with an oncoming car and many of those The incident began at 9:55 a.m. on February 18, 2003, on the who were trapped used cell phones to contact those outside. fourth car of the six-car Train 1079 at the underground Jun- In Daegu, emergency communications within the subway gangno station, four levels beneath the city. A 56-year-old man system did not register for more than 10 minutes after the with a history of depression, Kim Dae Han, removed a plastic incident began. This not only delayed emergency response milk carton containing a flammable substance, most likely but also led to the second train being permitted to proceed gasoline, from a black bag and attempted to light it with a cig- directly into the fire. arette lighter. As subway passengers tried to stop Han from In addition to the communication failures, the subway's flicking the lighter, some of the liquid spilled onto the floor of electrical systems also failed. This led to an absence of emer- the car. Just as the car doors were closing for departure, the gency lighting, the shut-down of the ventilation systems, and lighter ignited and the car caught fire. Han escaped through the the inadequacy of any existing emergency evacuation proce- closing doors and was seized by passengers, but the fire spread dures. Access to the station was also hampered because it is rapidly and black smoke rose. An ensuing power failure locked four levels below grade, with three levels of stairs between the the doors, leaving passengers trapped in the burning car as well platform and the surface. as in the five other cars in the subway consist. All subway traffic was halted and officials also cut all power, The first reports of the fire were apparently generated fearing that the overhead cables would collapse and electro- within seconds of the doors closing on the burning car via cell cute people. Because of the absence of emergency lighting and phone calls from distraught passengers calling loved ones; ventilation, firefighters from the more than 60 fire vehicles that however, official communication channels were not opened responded to the scene were met with thick smoke and dense until at least 10 minutes had lapsed. Because of this commu- toxic fumes that prevented them from reaching the injured nication gap, a six-car train (1080) traveling in the opposite passengers. The station's sprinkler system was triggered, but it direction entered the tunnel moments after the first train was not designed to suppress fire on the line itself. Therefore, burst into flames. The driver of the second train had ques- it released water onto the platform and station passages, fur- tioned train control as to whether he should enter the station, ther inhibiting attempts to evacuate the station.

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20 By the time firefighters discovered the remains of 70 peo- those who would be arrested that day and on March 4, 2003, ple in one car, most had been reduced to ash and bones. for suspicion of professional negligence resulting in death Another 50 were discovered on the stairs of the station, appar- and injuries was the driver of the original burning train and ently having choked to death as they attempted to flee the sta- the driver of the second train who was suspected of pulling tion. More than five hours after the fire started, firefighters the master controller key out of the doors, trapping passen- with breathing apparatus were still hunting for survivors at gers inside the train as its cars filled with smoke and toxic the underground station. fumes from the fire blazing in the other train. The charges were announced within weeks of a 63-year-old woman becoming the 198th fatality of the blaze when she died in an Damage and Service Restoration area hospital. The fire was fueled by the train's vinyl interior, seat cush- ions, and flammable floor tiles and windows. Both of the six- References car trains were demolished by the flames. Subway Line 1 resumed normal business on February 26, "Arsonist Jailed for Life Over Subway Deaths."(2003,Aug. 7). 2003, except for the six stations around Jungangno. The Age. Available: http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/ 08/06/1060145722512.html (Accessed Nov. 16, 2004). Byun, D. (2003, Feb. 18). "Taegu Subway Fire Claims Over Conclusions 130 Lives in Taegu." Korea Times. Available: http://times.han Two days after the arson attack, South Korean President- kooki.com/lpage/200302/kt2003021821164510440.htm elect Roh Moo Hyun declared the Daegu subway area a (Accessed Nov. 10, 2004). "Special Disaster Zone" so that it would be eligible to Byun, D. (2003, Feb. 26). "Death Toll from Train Arson receive special administrative and financial aid for rescue Expected to Reach 200." Korea Times. Available: http:// work and restoration and for victims' compensation. Roh times.hankooki.com/lpage/200302/kt2003022617213510230. also ordered safety checks of the entire Daegu Metropolitan htm (Accessed Nov. 16, 2004). Subway System and said he would push ahead with the plan "Daegu Subway Disaster" (2003, March 2). DaeguWeb: to establish a disaster control body to better cope with inci- A Multimedia Guide to Life in Daegu Korea. Available: dents like the arson attack. Investigators focused their http://www.thedaeguguide.com/writings/subwaydisaster.htm probe into possible mistakes made by subway officials deal- (Accessed Nov. 10, 2004). ing with the emergency, concentrating on why the doors of "Horrible Taegu Subway Disaster" (2003, Feb. 18). Korea the carriages of the two trains failed to open after the fire Times. Available: http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/ started. 200302/kt2003021818251011300.htm (Accessed Nov. 10, Shortly after Roh's speech, subway officials promised to 2004). install emergency lighting, increase the number of exit signs, "Inadequate Safety Planning Produces South Korean Sub- make car interiors flame resistant, and heighten security. way Disaster" (2003, Feb. 24). World Socialist Web Site. Avail- Kim Dae Han was apprehended 2 hours after the incident able: http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/feb2003/daeg-f24. at a local hospital. He was transferred to Kyungpook National shtml (Accessed Nov. 10, 2004). University Hospital to receive treatment for burns incurred "Police Probe Subway `Cover Up.'" (2003, Feb. 21). during the incident. Police determined that Han showed signs CNN.com/WORLD. Available: http://edition.cnn.com/2003/ of mental illness, for which he was treated between 1999 and WORLD/asiapcf/east/02/21/skorea.subway/index.html 2002. He was a taxi driver who had become paralyzed on the (Accessed Nov. 16, 2004). right side of his body after what he considered faulty medical "South Korea: Train Driver Is Arrested in Fire"(2003, Mar. 5). care. On the day of the incident, Han was determined to com- The New York Times, p. A8. Available: http://query.nytimes. mit suicide in a crowded place. The Daegu District Court com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C00E3DE153FF936A35750C0A9 convicted him of arson and homicide on August 7, 2003, and 659C8B63 (Accessed Sept. 1, 2006) sentenced him to life in prison. Although prosecutors had "200 Dead, Missing In Daegu Subway Arson" (2003, asked for the death penalty, the court showed leniency, saying Feb.19). JoongAng Daily National. Available: http://english. that Han was repentant and mentally unstable when he com- people.com.cn/200302/19/eng20030219_111898.shtml mitted the crime. (Accessed Nov. 11, 2004). On February 24, 2003, police arrested 7 subway officials Yoo, D. (2003, Feb. 18). "Taegu Subway Notorious for Fre- and announced that they were seeking 3 more warrants in quent Accidents." Korea Times. Available: http://times.han connection with the arson. Among the 10 warrants, 9 were kooki.com/lpage/nation/200302/kt2003021820363711950. for subway officials and 1 was for the alleged arsonist. Among htm (Accessed Nov. 10, 2004).