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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH REPORT 86 PROGRAM V O L U M E 1 2 SPONSORED BY THE FTA TRANSPORTATION SECURITY NCHRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 525 V O L U M E 1 2 Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2006 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS David A. Lee Connecticut Transit CHAIR: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MEMBERS VICE CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Ann August Authority, Orlando Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Linda J. Bohlinger HNTB Corp. Robert I. Brownstein MEMBERS PB Consult, Inc. Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT, Austin Peter Cannito Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Metropolitan Transportation Authority--Metro North Railroad John D. Bowe, Regional President, APL Americas, Oakland, CA Gregory Cook Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Ann Arbor Transportation Authority Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Nathaniel P. Ford Atlanta, GA San Francisco MUNI Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Ronald L. Freeland Douglas G. Duncan, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Fred M. Gilliam Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority Charlottesville Kim R. Green Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GFI GENFARE Genevieve Giuliano, Professor and Senior Associate Dean of Research and Technology, School of Policy, Jill A. Hough Planning, and Development, and Director, METRANS National Center for Metropolitan North Dakota State University Transportation Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles John Inglish Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark Utah Transit Authority University, Worcester, MA Jeanne W. Krieg Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority James R. Hertwig, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL Celia G. Kupersmith Gloria J. Jeff, General Manager, City of Los Angeles DOT, Los Angeles, CA Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley District Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT, Atlanta Clarence W. Marsella Sue McNeil, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Denver Regional Transportation District Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Faye L. M. Moore Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT, Concord Stephanie L. Pinson John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Robert H. Prince, Jr. Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson DMJM+Harris Henry Gerard Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University, St. Louis, MO Jeffrey M. Rosenberg Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Amalgamated Transit Union C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Michael Scanlon San Mateo County Transit District Beverly Scott EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Sacramento Regional Transit District Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC James S. Simpson Thomas J. Barrett (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials FTA Frank Tobey Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT First Transit Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT Kathryn D. Waters Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit John Bobo, Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Frank Wilson Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, EX OFFICIO MEMBERS National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC William W. Millar J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT APTA Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC TRB John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation AASHTO Officials, Washington, DC J. Richard Capka FHWA J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Louis Sanders Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT APTA Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT SECRETARY James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert J. Reilly Carl A. Strock (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of TRB Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of November 2006. *Membership as of November 2006.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 86/NCHRP REPORT 525 TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Volume 12: Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF QUADE & DOUGLAS, INC. New York, NY SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION McLean, VA INTERACTIVE ELEMENTS INCORPORATED New York, NY Subject Areas Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Operations and Safety Public Transit Rail Freight Transportation Security Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation and by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 86, VOLUME 12 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Price $42.00 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current Project J-10G systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISSN 1073-4872 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve ISBN-13: 978-0-309-09871-7 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to ISBN-10: 0-309-09871-8 adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- Library of Congress Control Number 2006910357 duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by 2006 Transportation Research Board which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report COPYRIGHT PERMISSION 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A published or copyrighted material used herein. report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- NOTICE posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- purposes and resources of the National Research Council. ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Department of Transportation. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Committee defines funding levels and expected products. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 525, VOLUME 12 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Price $42.00 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway Project 20-67 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually ISBN-13: 978-0-309-09871-7 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the ISBN-10: 0-309-09871-8 accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly Library of Congress Control Number 2006910357 complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These 2006 Transportation Research Board problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the COPYRIGHT PERMISSION American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on published or copyrighted material used herein. a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, Transportation. FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of requested by the Association to administer the research program any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of from CRP. modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it NOTICE possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of Council. research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of object of this report. mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 86/NCHRP REPORT 525, VOL. 12 Robert J. Reilly, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher W. Jenks, TCRP Manager Crawford F. Jencks, NCHRP Manager S. A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Beth Hatch, Editor TCRP PROJECT J-10G PANEL/NCHRP PROJECT 20-67 PANEL TCRP Field of Special Projects NCHRP Field of Special Projects Ernest R. Frazier, Countermeasures Assessment and Security Experts, LLC, Camden, NJ (Chair) Wern-ping Chen, Jacobs Civil, Inc., Boston, MA William F. Daly, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Newark, NJ Herbert Einstein, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Gary Gee, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Oakland, CA Jugesh Kapur, Washington State DOT Levern McElveen, Federal Transit Administration John Nelson, Colorado DOT Brian Zelenko, URS Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD Sheila Rimal Duwadi, FHWA Liaison Matthew D. Rabkin, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Liaison Dawn Tucker, Research and Innovative Technology Administration Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By S. A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This twelfth volume of both NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security and TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security is designed to provide transportation tun- nel owners and operators with guidelines for protecting their tunnels by minimizing the damage potential from extreme events such that, if damaged, they may be returned to full functionality in relatively short periods. This report will be of interest to tunnel authorities, state and local transportation departments, other agencies responsible for tunnel operation and maintenance, enforcement personnel and first responders responsible for tunnel safety and security, and tunnel designers. The objective of Volume 12: Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure is to provide safety and security guidelines for owners and operators of transportation tunnels to use in identifying (1) principal vulnerabilities of tunnels to various hazards and threats; (2) poten- tial physical countermeasures; (3) potential operational countermeasures; and (4) deploy- able, integrated systems for emergency-related command, control, communications, and information. These guidelines were developed jointly under TCRP and NCHRP. They are appropriate for all modes of transportation. Science Applications International Corporation, together with Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., and Interactive Elements, Inc., prepared this volume of NCHRP Report 525/TCRP Report 86 under NCHRP Project 20-67/TCRP Project J-10G. Emergencies arising from terrorist threats highlight the need for transportation managers to minimize the vulnerability of travelers, employees, and physical assets through incident prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Managers seek to reduce the chances that transportation vehicles and facilities will be targets or instruments of terrorist attacks and to be prepared to respond to and recover from such possibilities. By being pre- pared to respond to terrorism, each transportation agency is simultaneously prepared to respond to natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, as well as human- caused events such as hazardous materials spills and other incidents. This is the twelfth volume of NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security and the twelfth volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, two series in which rele- vant information is assembled into single, concise volumes--each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. These volumes focus on the concerns that trans- portation agencies are addressing when developing programs in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed. Future volumes of the reports will be issued as they are completed.

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To develop this volume in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of signifi- cant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of state departments of transportation. A topic panel of experts in the subject area was established to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating the collected data and to review the final document. This volume was prepared to meet an urgent need for information in this area. It records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. Work in this area is proceeding swiftly, and readers are encouraged to be on the lookout for the most up-to-date information. Volumes issued under NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security and TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security may be found on the TRB website at http://www. TRB.org/SecurityPubs.

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CONTENTS xiii Preface 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Audience 2 1.2 Basic Definitions 2 1.3 Methodology 2 1.4 Assumptions 4 Chapter 2 Hazards and Threats 4 2.1 Major Hazards and Threats 6 2.2 Damage Potential 7 2.3 Hazard and Threat Scenarios 7 2.3.1 Hazard Scenarios in Relation to Assets 11 2.3.2 Threat Scenarios in Relation to Assets 15 2.4 Conclusions 16 Chapter 3 Case Studies 16 3.1 Introduction 16 3.2 Case Study Descriptions 16 3.2.1 Moscow Subway Suicide Bombing 18 3.2.2 Jungangno (Chungang-Ro) Subway Station Arson Fire 21 3.2.3 St. Gotthard Tunnel Fire 22 3.2.4 Howard Street CSX Tunnel Fire 26 3.2.5 Kitzsteinhorn Tunnel Cable Car Fire 28 3.2.6 Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire 32 3.2.7 Channel Tunnel Fire 34 3.2.8 Subway Sarin Gas Attack 37 3.2.9 Chicago Freight Tunnel Flood 39 3.2.10 London Underground (the Tube) King's Cross Station Fire 42 3.2.11 Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Transbay Tunnel Fire 44 3.2.12 Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) Evacuation under the World Trade Center 46 3.3 Summary of Case Studies 46 3.4 Conclusions 46 3.4.1 Pinpointing Vulnerabilities 46 3.4.2 Lessons Observed 50 3.4.3 Role of MEC Systems in Case Study Incidents 51 Chapter 4 Tunnel Elements and Vulnerabilities 51 4.1 Introduction 51 4.2 Types of Transportation Tunnels 52 4.2.1 Typical Road Tunnels 52 4.2.2 Typical Transit and Rail Tunnels

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52 4.3 Tunnel Construction Methods 52 4.3.1 Immersed Tube Tunnels 55 4.3.2 Cut-and-Cover Tunnels 55 4.3.3 Bored or Mined Tunnels 59 4.3.4 Air-Rights Structure Tunnels 59 4.4 Structural Elements and Vulnerabilities 59 4.4.1 Ground Characteristics 59 4.4.2 Modes of Tunnel Failure 65 4.4.3 Effects of Other Extreme Events 68 4.4.4 Critical Factors in Vulnerability Assessment of Transportation Tunnels 69 4.4.5 Damage Potential Rating of Tunnels 70 4.4.6 Summary 70 4.5 System Elements and Vulnerabilities 70 4.5.1 Key Safety Functions 72 4.5.2 Categorization of Systems 79 4.5.3 Degree of Impact on Safety and Operations 79 4.5.4 Potentially Critical Locations 79 4.5.5 Summary 79 4.6 Chapter Summary 100 Chapter 5 Countermeasures 100 5.1 Introduction 100 5.2 Hazard and Threat Directories 100 5.2.1 Structural Hazard and Threat Directories 100 5.2.2 System Hazard and Threat Directories 117 5.3 Countermeasure Guides 117 5.3.1 Introduction 117 5.3.2 Information Contained in Countermeasure Guides 121 5.3.3 How to Use the Countermeasure Guides 121 5.4 Countermeasure Descriptions 122 5.4.1 Recommended Minimum Measures 132 5.4.2 Recommended Measures for an Elevated Threat Level 136 5.4.3 Recommended Permanent Enhancements 149 5.5 Conclusion 152 Chapter 6 System Integration 152 6.1 Introduction 152 6.2 System Safety and Security 152 6.2.1 People 153 6.2.2 Operating Procedures 153 6.2.3 Engineering and Technological Systems and Controls 154 6.2.4 Physical Aspects of the Tunnel Structure 154 6.3 Security System Integration 156 6.4 Information Sharing 156 6.5 Conclusions 157 Chapter 7 Future Research 157 7.1 Pocket-Sized User Guide 157 7.2 Report Tables on a CD 159 7.3 Collaboration with European Research Programs

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159 7.4 Effects of Fire on the Tunnel Structure 159 7.5 Effectiveness of Current Tunnel Fire Detection Systems 159 7.6 Summary of Lessons Learned 159 7.7 Best Practices Manual 159 7.8 Changes in Operation Protocols to Enhance Safety 159 7.9 Sample Emergency Response Procedures 159 7.10 Owner Orientation Workshops 160 7.11 More Effective Broad-Based Fire Detection Systems 160 7.12 Ground Improvement Retrofitting Schemes 160 7.13 Guidelines for Vehicle Inspections 160 7.14 Design Criteria for New Tunnels 160 7.14.1 Tunnel Structural Elements 161 7.14.2 Tunnel System Elements 161 7.15 More Effective Fire Detection Systems 161 7.16 Industry Feedback Workshops 161 7.17 Interactive Electronic Version of this Report 162 7.18 Effectiveness of Current Tunnel Fire Suppression Systems 162 7.19 Retrofit Technologies to Enhance Safety 162 7.20 More Effective Tunnel Fire Suppression Systems 162 7.21 Tunnel-Specific Inspection Manual 162 7.22 Advanced Coordinated Control Schemes for Ventilation Systems 162 7.23 Test Tunnels or Models 162 7.24 Structural Blast Damage Potential Analyses 163 7.25 Intelligent Egress Systems 163 7.26 Issues Identified by Case Studies 164 References Cited in the Report 166 Additional Sources 167 List of Abbreviations

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Disclaimer: The contents within these guidelines reflect the best judgment and experience of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. (PB), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and Interactive Elements, Inc. (IEI), who researched and developed this book. The principal investigator for this project was Irfan Oncu (PB). Pri- mary authors were Kevin A. Duffy (SAIC), Jaw-Nan (Joe) Wang (PB), Arthur Bendelius (PB), Gloria Hettinger (PB), Steve Lockwood (PB), Harry Saporta (PB), James Guinan (PB), and Dorothy Schulz (IEI).

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PREFACE This research project aimed to provide safety and security guidelines for transportation tun- nel owners and operators. To accomplish this task, a team of experienced tunnel designers, builders, and operations personnel collaborated with safety and security experts to address the questions that a tunnel owner or operator may face in the post-9/11 environment, including the following: What natural hazards and intentional threats do I face? How would they be introduced? What are the vulnerable areas of my tunnel? How much of a disturbance would there be? How can I avoid these hazards and threats? How can I prepare myself for this disturbance if it occurs? While risks to tunnels derive from both intentional threats related to crime and terrorism and hazards related to natural (i.e., unintentional) events, the risks often have the same tunnel vul- nerabilities and damage potential and may share common countermeasures. Therefore, in this report, threat- and hazard-related characteristics and countermeasures are typically treated together in text and tables, except where specifically noted. The recommendations for countermeasures presented in this report are intended for imple- mentation by the tunnel owner or operator. This implementation may occur in part or whole depending on the local conditions and, importantly, the level of risk faced by the owner or operator. The owner or operator will also need to balance the implementation of structural and/or operational countermeasures with funding constraints. The countermeasures are pre- sented as a menu of items that the owner or operator may select from. Issues of funding are not extensively explored in this report. This report is organized into seven chapters: Chapter 1, "Introduction," introduces the problems that this project has attempted to solve and the environment of the work. The chapter also describes the assumptions of the research team in approaching the work and defines the research terms. Chapter 2, "Hazards and Threats," describes hazards and threats according to the areas or elements of the tunnel that might be affected, how the hazards and threats might be intro- duced, the operational and physical vulnerabilities to those hazards and threats, and the dam- age potential of the hazards and threats. Chapter 3, "Case Studies," provides a chronology of past tunnel disasters that were studied for this project. The case studies researched the cause and effect of the disasters to glean per- tinent information that may be applied in this research. Chapter 4, "Tunnel Elements and Vulnerabilities," gives basic descriptions of various tun- nel types, both by mode of transportation and by construction methodology. The chapter then outlines specific vulnerabilities by describing how and why failures can occur under safety- and security-related hazards and threats (e.g., fire or explosion) based on characteris-

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tics of the tunnel's structure as well as the surrounding earth. The chapter rates the damage potential for various types of tunnels under explosion and fire events. The chapter also sum- marizes structural vulnerabilities and damage potential of the most extreme hazard or threat scenarios for road, transit, and rail tunnels. The chapter presents a parallel analysis for mechanical, electrical, and communications (MEC) systems serving tunnels. These systems are described and categorized based on how critical they are to the continuing functionality of the tunnel and on the impact that system disruption would have. The chapter rates vulnerability versus critical location for the five MEC system types deemed to be the most critical. The system vulnerabilities and damage potential of the most extreme hazard and threat scenarios are summarized for road, transit, and rail tunnels. Chapter 5, "Countermeasures," presents structural and system hazard and threat directo- ries, in the form of tables, that summarize the information given in Chapter 4. The tunnel owner or operator is instructed how to apply these directories to his or her own facility and, by the process of elimination, identify which of eight countermeasure guides to consult. The countermeasure guides, which are also presented in the form of tables, refer the user to 50 possible countermeasures. The countermeasures are physical and/or operational meth- ods for improving the structural and/or system elements of the tunnel. Within the guides, each countermeasure is supplied with the following: Implementation (i.e., minimum required, deployed for an elevated threat level, or perma- nent enhancement), Function and description, Relative effectiveness, Order-of-magnitude cost, Physical or operational in nature, Security strategy (i.e., deter, detect, interdict, or mitigate, including response and prepared- ness), and Multiple-benefit potential. Directly following the guides, the 50 countermeasures are described in detail and are accompanied by sketches wherever possible. The countermeasure descriptions incorporate limitations of existing tunnels, types of construction, materials used, and the current tunnel environmental conditions. The recommendations are intended to improve the operational safety and structural integrity of the tunnel when exposed to a hazard or threat. Chapter 6, "System Integration," provides information on current and proposed integrated systems that may be used to increase the safety and security of a transportation tunnel. Chapter 7, "Future Research," provides recommendations for areas requiring further study and approximate funding costs. The areas of future research include 26 items with various cost and schedule estimates. The report concludes with a list of references that were cited in the text, a list of additional sources, and a list of abbreviations.