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OCR for page 101

102
EQUATION SYMBOLS
ENGLISH LETTERS--UPPERCASE Jn = joint set number.
Jr = joint roughness number.
Ab = cross-sectional area of the foundation base. Jw = joint water reduction factor.
Ac = cross-sectional area of concrete inside of spiral K = normal stiffness of rock-concrete interface.
steel. Kb = socket depth factor.
Ag = gross cross-sectional area of concrete shaft. Kir = initial slope of p-y curve.
As = surface area of the side of the foundation. Ko = in situ coefficient of lateral earth pressure.
Ast = total cross-sectional area of longitudinal rein- Kp = coefficient of passive earth pressure.
forcement. L = socket length.
Av = area of concrete in the cross section that is effec- LM = length of equivalent fixed-end column consider-
tive in resisting shear. ing lateral deflection owing to moment.
Avs = cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement. LV = length of equivalent fixed-end column consider-
B = foundation diameter. ing lateral deflection owing to shear.
Bls = diameter of a circle passing through the center of LM = length of equivalent fixed-end column consider-
the longitudinal reinforcement. ing rotation owing to moment.
C = correlation factor relating point load strength to LV = length of equivalent fixed-end column consider-
uniaxial compressive strength of rock; ing rotation owing to shear.
correlation coefficient relating uniaxial compres- Ls = nominal socket length.
sive strength to ultimate unit side resistance. Lt = total travel distance along socket wall profile for
D = foundation depth; distance between point loads roughness determination.
in point load test; rock-socket diameter. M = bending moment.
D s = depth of embedment in rock; thickness of soil N = standard penetration test value.
layer overlying rock. N60 = corrected N for field procedures corresponding to
E = elastic modulus; modulus of deformation. 60% hammer efficiency.
Eb = elastic modulus of rock mass below the shaft Nc = bearing capacity factor.
base. Ncr = bearing capacity factor.
Ec = elastic modulus of the concrete shaft. Nq = bearing capacity factor.
Ed = small-strain dynamic modulus. N = bearing capacity factor.
Ee = effective elastic modulus of concrete shaft. N = bearing capacity factor.
Eir = initial elastic modulus of rock mass. OCR = overconsolidation ratio.
EM = rock mass modulus of deformation. P = axial load acting on a drilled shaft; load at rupture
Ep = elastic modulus of the pile (shaft) material. in a point load test.
Er = elastic modulus of intact rock; modulus of rock Pr = factored axial resistance.
mass above the base. Pu = factored axial load.
ER = elastic modulus of intact rock. Pz = axial load on a deep foundation.
Es = elastic modulus of the shaft. Q = Tunneling Quality Index.
G* = equivalent shear modulus of rock mass. Q' = modified Tunneling Quality Index.
Gr = shear modulus of the elastic rock mass. Qb = load transmitted to the base of a rock socket; ul-
GSI = Geological Strength Index timate resistance at the socket base.
H = horizontal load acting on a drilled shaft. Qc = compressive force applied to the top of a drilled
ID = slake durability index. shaft.
IGM = intermediate geomaterial. Qi = intercept on the vertical axis (wc = 0) of axial
Is = uncorrected point load strength index; moment of load-displacement curve.
inertia of reinforced-concrete shaft. QOC = Osterberg cell test load.
Is(50) = point load strength corrected to a diameter of Qs = total side resistance (force).
50 mm. Qt = total compressive load applied to the top of the
I = dimensionless influence factor for elastic shaft.
deformation. REC = average percent recovery of rock core.
J = coefficient used to evaluate ultimate lateral resis- RF = roughness factor.
tance in soil; bearing capacity correction RMR = rock mass rating.
factor that depends on the ratio of horizontal dis- RQD = rock quality designation.
continuity spacing to socket diameter. SRF = stress reduction factor.
Ja = joint alteration number. S = joint spacing.

OCR for page 101

103
S1 = slope of the initial portion of axial load-displace- u = lateral displacement at the groundline of socketed
ment curve. shaft.
S2 = slope of the full-slip portion of axial load-dis- w = distributed load along the length of the shaft.
placement curve. wc = axial displacement at the top of a socketed shaft.
Vc = nominal shear resistance provided by concrete. xr = depth below rock surface.
Vn = nominal shear resistance of reinforced concrete. y = lateral deflection of a deep foundation.
Vp = compressional wave velocity. z = depth below rock mass surface.
Vr = factored shear resistance of reinforced concrete. zy = depth of yielding in soil and/or rock mass.
Vs = shear wave velocity; nominal shear resistance
provided by transverse steel.
GREEK SYMBOLS--UPPERCASE
ENGLISH LETTERS--LOWERCASE r = dilation or increase in shaft radius.
r = mean roughness height.
a = empirical constant in HoekBrown strength cri- rh = average height of asperities.
terion for rock mass.
b = empirical factor to account for effect of rough-
GREEK SYMBOLS--LOWERCASE
ness on side resistance.
c = rock mass cohesion; soil cohesion. = ratio of design to ultimate unit side resistance; ratio
cpeak = peak interface adhesion. of rock mass modulus to modulus of intact rock;
cresidual = residual interface adhesion. empirical adhesion factor relating unit side resis-
cu = undrained shear strength. tance to uniaxial strength of intact rock.
d = effective shear depth of reinforced concrete.
= total unit weight of rock or soil.
ds = socket diameter.
' = effective unit weight of rock or soil.
f = shear wave frequency (hertz).
r = relative shear displacement between concrete and
fc' = compressive strength of concrete at 28 days.
rock.
fdes = design unit side resistance.
M = lateral deflection owing to moment.
fsu = ultimate unit side resistance.
V = lateral deflection owing to shear.
fy = yield strength of reinforcing steel.
= strain.
kir = dimensionless constant used in p-y curve
= Poisson's ratio.
criterion.
c = Poisson's ratio of concrete.
krm = constant used to establish the overall stiffness of
b = Poisson's ratio of rock mass beneath the base of
a p-y curve.
mb = empirical constant in HoekBrown strength cri- a rock socket.
terion for rock mass. r = Poisson's ratio of rock mass.
n = ratio of rock mass modulus to uniaxial compres- c = construction method reduction factor.
sive strength of intact rock. = mass density.
p = lateral soil or rock reaction per unit length of s = ratio of spiral steel reinforcement volume to vol-
foundation. ume of concrete core.
p1 = limit pressure determined from a pressuremeter '1, '3 = major and minor principal effective stresses.
test. 'h = horizontal effective stress.
pa = atmospheric pressure. n = interface normal stress; fluid pressure exerted by
pA = horizontal active earth pressure. concrete at the time of placement.
pL = limit normal stress. p' = preconsolidation stress.
po = at-rest total horizontal stress. v = vertical total stress.
pur = rock mass ultimate lateral resistance. v' = vertical effective stress,
pult = ultimate lateral resistance of soil or rock mass. = shear strength.
qu = uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock. max = shearing resistance at shaft-rock interface.
qult = ultimate bearing capacity. = shaft rotation.
qt = split tensile strength. M = rotation owing to moment.
r = radius of drilled shaft. V = rotation owing to shear.
rs = nominal socket radius. = friction angle; resistance factor.
s = empirical constant in HoekBrown strength cri- ' = effective stress friction angle.
terion for rock mass; vertical spacing of the ties peak = peak interface friction angle.
or pitch of the spiral for shear reinforcement. rc = residual angle of interface friction between rock
sc, s, sq = shape factors used in bearing capacity analysis. and concrete.
sv = vertical spacing between discontinuities. residual = residual friction angle.
td = aperture (thickness) of discontinuities. = angle of dilation.