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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 557 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Aggregate Tests for Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixtures Used in Pavements

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2006 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (Membership as of June 2006) OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology VICE CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT John D. Bowe, Regional President, APL Americas, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Douglas G. Duncan, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL Genevieve Giuliano, Professor and Senior Associate Dean of Research and Technology, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, and Director, METRANS National Center for Metropolitan Transportation Research, USC, Los Angeles Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University James R. Hertwig, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL Gloria J. Jeff, General Manager, City of Los Angeles DOT Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT Sue McNeil, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Henry Gerard Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas at Austin Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) Thomas J. Barrett (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) Sandra K. Bushue, Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) David H. Hugel, Acting Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) Ashok G. Kaveeshwar, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) Julie A. Nelson, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) Carl A. Strock (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio)

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 557 Aggregate Tests for Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixtures Used in Pavements Thomas D. White MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY Mississippi State, MS John E. Haddock PURDUE UNIVERSITY West Lafayette, IN Erza Rismantojo PT SOILENS Bandung, Indonesia Subject Areas Pavement Design, Management, and Performance Materials and Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 557 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Price $30.00 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway Project 4-19(2) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually ISBN 0-309-09860-2 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the Library of Congress Control Number 2006930594 accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly 2006 Transportation Research Board complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the COPYRIGHT PERMISSION American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program published or copyrighted material used herein. employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Transportation. educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission requested by the Association to administer the research program from CRP. because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which NOTICE authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this research directly to those who are in a position to use them. report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade The needs for highway research are many, and the National or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant object of this report. contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 557 Robert J. Reilly, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, NCHRP Manager Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor Natalie Barnes, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 4-19(2) PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of General Materials Richard L. Stewart, South Carolina DOT (retired) (Chair) Paul T. Foxworthy, ERES Consultants, Inc., Overland Park, KS Vernon J. Marks, Iowa DOT (retired) Richard C. Meininger, Columbia, MD Larry A. Scofield, Arizona DOT (retired) William Sheftick, Illinois DOT (retired) William H. Skerritt, New York State DOT Stephen Forster, FHWA Liaison Thomas Harman, FHWA Liaison G.P. Jayaprakash, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents recommendations for performance-based procedures to test aggregates for use in pavements utilizing hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures and provides guidance on using these procedures for evaluating and selecting aggregates for use in specific mixture appli- cations. This information will guide materials engineers in selecting the aggregates that should contribute to well performing pavements; this information can also be used in conjunction with performance-related specifications. The content of this report will be of immediate interest to materials engineers, researchers, and others concerned with the construction and performance of HMA pavements. The properties of coarse and fine aggregates used in HMA mixtures significantly affect the performance of the highway pavements in which they are used. Despite their obvious importance, little consideration is usually given to the testing of aggregates. Many currently used aggregate tests are empirical--they were developed without establishing a direct rela- tion to pavement performance. Furthermore, some of the most commonly used test meth- ods are not easy to perform and do not yield reproducible results; compliance with these tests does not consistently result in acceptable performance. Thus research was needed to recommend precise tests that measure key aggregate properties related to pavement perfor- mance. The tests are for use in evaluating and selecting aggregates or in conjunction with performance-related specifications. Research performed under NCHRP Project 4-19, reported in NCHRP Report 405: Aggre- gate Tests Related to Asphalt Concrete Performance in Pavements, evaluated aggregate tests through a study of literature and laboratory tests. The research then identified a set of nine aggregate tests that relate to the performance of HMA mixtures used in pavement construc- tion and thus can be used as predictors of pavement performance. However, the project did not assess the validity of these tests by in-service performance tests or accelerated pavement tests. Under NCHRP Project 4-19(2), "Validation of Performance-Related Tests of Aggre- gates for Use in Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements," Purdue University of West Lafayette, Indiana, (with Mississippi State University serving as a subcontractor) was assigned the objective of evaluating, by accelerated load tests and/or in-service pavement studies, the validity of the aggregate tests identified in NCHRP Project 4-19 as predictors of field performance of HMA mixtures and then recommending performance-based test methods. The research concen- trated on dense-graded virgin HMA used in the top layers of high-load, high-volume pave- ments. To accomplish this objective, the researchers performed the following tasks: 1. Review and synthesis of information relevant to the testing and evaluation of aggregates used in HMA pavements;

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2. Characterization of a wide variety of aggregate types and selection of five coarse and six fine aggregates representing a range of properties for use in the research; 3. Conduct of accelerated fatigue and rutting tests of full-scale pavement sections con- structed with HMA mixtures containing aggregates of different types and properties to correlate performance with the aggregate properties measured in the laboratory using the test methods identified in NCHRP Report 405; data from rutting tests were also used to assess moisture susceptibility; 4. Analysis of test results to (a) evaluate the effect of specific aggregate properties on per- formance, (b) determine the sensitivity of these aggregate properties to traffic level, and (c) evaluate the validity of the previously identified tests; and 5. Recommendation of a set of tests for evaluating aggregates used in HMA pavements and proposed acceptance criteria for different levels of traffic. The recommended set of eight aggregate tests deals with particle shape, angularity, sur- face texture, durability, and soundness of the aggregates and with the characteristics of the fines in aggregates. These tests and the proposed acceptance criteria can be used to select aggregates for use in HMA mixtures or in conjunction with performance-related specifica- tions. These test methods will be particularly useful to highway agencies and are recom- mended for consideration and adoption by AASHTO as standard test methods. Appendixes A through F contained in the research agency's final report are not published herein. These appendixes are accessible on the web as NCHRP Web-Only Document 82 at http://www4.trb.org/trb/onlinepubs.nsf. These appendixes are titled as follows: Appendix A: Petrographic Analysis Results; Appendix B: Laboratory HMA Mixture Design Results; Appendix C: Aggregate Tests; Appendix D: Test Section Construction and Control; Appendix E: Moisture Susceptibility; and Appendix F: Bibliography.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Approach 3 Problem Statement and Research Objectives 3 Scope of Study 3 Research Approach 8 Chapter 2 Findings 8 State-of-the-Art Summary 10 Aggregate Test Results 15 Mixture Designs 17 Accelerated Pavement Test Results 24 Chapter 3 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Application 24 Coarse-Graded Mixtures 26 Fine-Graded Mixtures 30 Moisture Susceptibility Mixtures 33 Fatigue Mixtures 34 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 34 Coarse Aggregate Uncompacted Voids Content 34 Flat or Elongated Particles 35 Fine Aggregate Uncompacted Void Content 36 Methylene Blue Test 36 Particle Size Analysis 36 Micro-Deval and Magnesium Sulfate Soundness 36 Summary 36 Recommended Research 38 References