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Tarwi. This lupin (Lupinus mutabilis, Leguminosae) is one of the most beautiful crops, and its seeds are as rich, or richer, in protein than peas, beans, soybeans, and peanuts—the world's premier plant-protein sources. Also, they contain about as much vegetable oil as soybeans. Tarwi has been held back mainly because its seeds are bitter. The Indians soak them in running water for a day or two, to wash out the bitterness. Recently, engineers in Peru and Chile have developed machinery to do it more quickly and more easily. Also, geneticists in several countries have developed bitter-free varieties that need little or no washing. (Page 181)

VEGETABLES

Peppers. Chilies and sweet peppers (Capsicum species, Solanaceae) have become the most widely used spices in the world, but hidden in the Andes—the original home of all peppers—are several more domesticated peppers as well as some wild species. All of these are employed by local people, and they promise to add new pungency, new tastes, and new variety to many of the world's cuisines. (Page 195)

Squashes and Their Relatives. Several of the fruits that are variously known as pumpkins, squashes, gourds, or vegetable marrows have their origins or greatest development in the Andes. These (Cucurbita species, Cucurbitaceae) and some lesser-known botanical relatives are robust, productive crops, especially suitable for subsistence use. Many are little known elsewhere, and offer promise of new and better foods for scores of countries. (Page 203)

FRUITS

Berries. Along the length of the Andes are found several dozen localized berry fruits. hese include relatives of raspberry and blackberry Rubus species, Rosaceae), blueberry (Vaccinium species, Rosaceae), and some small berries (Myrtus species, Myrtaceae) that are rather like mini guavas. Collectively, they represent a source of new and interesting fruits. (Page 213)

Capuli Cherry. The black cherries that are found throughout the Americas reach their best development in the Andes, where the capuli (Prunus capuli, Rosaceae) is a popular city and backyard tree. The cherrylike fruits are found in the markets three or four months of the



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