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36 the world of 3-D. There is a need for widespread recogni- may accrue from adopting 3-D and 4-D technologies." The tion of the importance for the adoption of enterprise-wide findings of this synthesis provide a better understanding of programs for dealing with spatial data. The "stove pipe" the breadth of application and acceptance by the public, but mentality of keeping systems separate and nonintegrated, there are still no data to support valid conclusions regarding which characterizes the design process within many state relative effectiveness and benefits of use. DOTs, needs to change. This need appears to be the case regardless of whether the use of visualization is for public In the years since NCHRP Synthesis 229 there have been involvement, for project design, or for machine control and dramatic reductions in the costs associated with the hardware stakeout during construction. and software required to generate realistic, high-resolution imagery. Despite this phenomenon, state DOTs remain FINDINGS IN COMMON WITH NCHRP reluctant to invest in this technology. In addition, where SYNTHESIS 229 investments have been made, there remains a great deal of uncertainty as to how to best organize to take advantage of There has been, and continues to be, a growth in and diver- the new investments. sity of uses of visualization technologies through many aspects of the highway project development process. How- DOTs are beginning to ask (informally) for both technical ever, similar to the findings of NCHRP Synthesis 229, the training and organizational support on how best to invest, primary focus of using visualization in project development organize, and function with these technologies. has been during conceptual design in support of public involvement. Despite today's heightened awareness of the need for proj- ect collaboration and information management the systems The case studies contained herein suggest that currently used for planning, design, construction, and public involvement available visualization tools can benefit the interaction remain largely nonintegrated. Visualization can provide a com- between engineers and designers and end users. However, mon source of spatial data for the different functions. The Inter- these benefits continue, in large part, to be anecdotal and not net, for example, can enable individuals to interact in highly substantiated by data. NCHRP Synthesis 229 specifically collaborative ways in a visually oriented space and in real time. noted the inability to "reach any valid conclusions with Still lacking is an effective set of tools to communicate and respect to relative effectiveness, the breadth of application collaborate effectively in 3-D for transportation engineering within an agency, public acceptance, or other benefits that organizations, in both intranet and Internet environments.