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4 ORGANIZATION OF SYNTHESIS Chapter four addresses the challenges of visualization. It focuses on how transportation agencies are integrating visu- This synthesis is presented in five chapters. This first chapter alization into the design process and how there is a need for details the synthesis purpose and scope. a costbenefit analysis to assist that need. The chapter also investigates the personnel involved in the visualization Chapter two provides an overview of visualization. Topics process. It describes how decision makers, technicians, and include the definition of visualization, the history of visualiza- project managers interact with each other during the design tion within the transportation design community, the need for process. Staffing, training, funding, and approvals awareness visualization (e.g., for cost savings, production schedule, and visualization tools are presented. The issues of standard- increased communication, and better design), the uses of ization and guidelines are also discussed. visualization (e.g., for design review, interference detection, construction sequencing, approval, public involvement, and Chapter five compares the results of this synthesis study homeland security), and the applications used in visualization. with the results of a similar 1996 study. It describes how the use of visualization has changed in the past decade, includ- Chapter three details case studies recommended by the ing what has worked and what has not worked. Chapter six panel from state DOTs; the FHWA; and other agencies, con- presents the conclusions. It summarizes opportunities to sultants, and vendors referred by the state DOT and FHWA advance visualization in transportation, presents additional interviewees. The case studies focus on the best practices findings, and provides concluding remarks. process, which includes initiating a visualization program, obstacles, goals, benefits, costs, savings, shortcomings, lessons learned, and next steps.