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8 USES OF VISUALIZATION WITHIN project-specific aesthetic guidelines or visual quality TRANSPORTATION DESIGN COMMUNITY manuals that some agencies have, such as the guide- lines of the Mn/DOT (7). People use visualization in ways that vary widely from dis- Construction sequencing. Visualization can be used cipline to discipline. Within the transportation agency com- to help planners comprehend complex construction munity, several uses of visualization are in application today. sequencing issues (see Figure 6). Construction overruns are common and affect project budgets significantly. Design. As shown in the case studies in this synthesis, Almost all construction claims for overruns are based visualization enables planners and engineers to design on design problems, usually because contractors claim more effectively and efficiently. Critical issues such that their jobs required more work than was outlined in as line-of-sight and site impacts can be better under- the original plans. These design problems lead to more stood through the use of visual tools. Because engi- work and can be reduced or even eliminated through the neers are currently charged with the task of designing use of 3-D CADD design and visualization. 3-D projects, it seems particularly practical to use 3-D Interference detection. If the design process is being tools (see Figure 5). Completing the design using completed in 3-D, a variety of visualization tools can 3-D visualization tools enables engineers to better automatically identify interferences during the CADD understand the design and construction process and to process. This process can be complicated, involving a identify design flaws early in the process instead of significant number of plan sheets. Often it is difficult for during the construction phase, where expensive over- the designer and decision maker to fully understand the runs usually occur or where it may be too late to rem- impacts of a project because many plan sheets need to edy the design flaw. be cross-referenced. Three-dimensional applications Human factors assessment. Visuals assist planners and can improve the overall understanding of the design designers in identifying the full range of human factors by automating the process of identifying interferences and interfaces (e.g., cognitive, organizational, physical, functional, and environmental) necessary to achieve an acceptable level of design and meet the functional requirements of the project. Results are realized in improved acquisition decisions, reduced training and maintenance costs, fewer human errors, improved safety, a higher probability of system success, and improved user acceptance. Impact analysis. Visuals allow planners and designers to "see" project impacts before anything is built. Visu- als that help explain or justify certain aspects of a proj- ect are usually incorporated into one of two documents: (1) the environmental impact statement (EIS), which is a document produced during the project develop- ment and environment process that describes all likely impacts that will result from the project, or (2) the FIGURE 5 3-D rendering. (Courtesy : Bergmann Associates.) FIGURE 6 Construction sequencing.