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18 Annotated Bibliography 1. Amador County, California, Shelter-in-Place in an Emergency, 2007. http://www.redcross.org/preparedness/cdc_english/IsoQuar.asp Amador County's outline of shelter-in-place activities at home, (April 27, 2007). school, and/or offices in the event of an emergency where hazardous 7. Centers for Disease Control, Global Migration and Quarantine. Fact materials are released in the air. Available online: http://www.co. Sheet: Isolation and Quarantine, August 2006. Explains the differ- amador.ca.us/depts/oes/shelter_in_place_oes.cfm (April 27, 2007). ences between Isolation and Quarantine and provides an example 2. American Red Cross, Fact Sheet on Shelter-in-Place, February 2003. of effective use of isolation and quarantine during the SARS pan- Defines shelter-in-place and the instances where it may be used, such demic. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/isolation as home work and/or school. Also describes the measures that should quarantine.htm (April 27, 2007). be taken for shelter-in-place. PDF format. Available online: http:// 8. Centers for Disease Control and Red Cross, Quarantine Fact Sheet, www.redcross.org/services/disaster/beprepared/shelterinplace.pdf February 2006. Explains when the use of modern quarantine is ap- (April 27, 2007). propriate. Available online: http://www.redcross.org/preparedness/ 3. Barclay, L., Status Of SARS In The US: An Expert Interview with Sur- cdc_english/Quarantine.asp (April 27, 2007). geon General Richard H. Carmona, MD, MPH, FACS, April 11, 2003. 9. Centers for Disease Control, Supplement E: Managing International Surgeon General Carmona discusses the status of SARS in the Travel-Related Transmission Risk, January 2004. Provides two matri- United States compared to other countries in an interview with ces that outline suggested activities for inbound and outbound trav- Laurie Barclay of Medscape. He also describes the effect of public elers within the United States, including a mandate for quarantine in health measures and interagency collaboration (i.e., U.S. Food and the event of an outbreak. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/ Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control, Department of sars/guidance/E/pdf/e.pdf. (April 27, 2007). Defense at the U.S. Army Disease Research Institute, and pharma- 10. Chambers, J., The Economic Impact of Biological Agent Release in a ceuticals), have had on the epidemic. Available at: http://www. Multi-State, Multi-Hazard Context, December 2004. A Develop- medscape.com/viewarticle/452302 (April 27, 2007). ment of a Framework for Analyzing the Economic Impact of a Bi- 4. British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, British Columbia ological Disaster and its Application to Operation Summer Breeze Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan: Guidelines for Response in Charlotte, North Carolina. and Recovery, August 2005. Local and regional roles and respon- 11. CRS Report for Congress, "Federal and State Quarantine and Iso- sibilities of British Columbia's key players. Also provides frame- lation Authority." Library of Congress, August 16, 2006. Available work of pre-pandemic, pandemic, and post-pandemic stages of a at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33201.pdf (April 27, 2007). disease outbreak. Available online: http://www.bccdc.org/content. 12. Department of Defense (DOD), Office of the Under Secretary of De- php?item=150 (April 27, 2007). fense, Interim Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on SARS 5. Centers for Disease Control, CDC Smallpox Response Plan and Quarantine, December 2004. A series of Appendices regarding the Guidelines: Guide C-Quarantine Guidelines, March 2003. Outlines Defense Science Board Task Force on SARS Quarantine, including a a framework for quarantine measures during the event of a small- report on the status of the threat of SARS on the United States and pox outbreak. Lists items required by health officials during a national security. Presents findings and recommendations based on bioterrorist event. Also identifies the authorities (i.e., federal gov- the SARS epidemic. Lists terms of references and a review of refer- ernment, more specifically the Secretary of Health and Human Ser- ence documents by Dr. Thomas Inglesby. Available online: http:// vices and Surgeon General) responsible for implementing inter- www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/2004-12-SARS_Memo_Final.pdf vention methods. Discusses the dynamics of state quarantine laws. (April 27, 2007). Available online: www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/response-plan/ 13. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease files/guide-c-part-2.doc (April 27, 2007). Control, Supplement D: Community Containment Measures, In- 6. Centers for Disease Control, Controlling the Spread of Contagious cluding Non-Hospital Isolation and Quarantine: Guidelines for Eval- Diseases: Quarantine and Isolation, February 2006. Describes Cen- uating Homes and Facilities for Isolation and Quarantine, January 8, ters for Disease Control's two primary strategies for containing 2004. Provides a framework for containment measures taken dur- and mitigating the spread of communicable diseases. Discusses the ing a disease outbreak. Uses SARS as a model. Lists factors to con- difference between quarantine and isolation as well as some of the sider when establishing priorities among available facilities that logistics behind the two. Also provides definitions of terms "in- may be used for quarantine. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/ fectious," "communicable," and "contagious." Available online: ncidod/sars/guidance/D/pdf/app3.pdf (April 27, 2007).
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19 14. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11, No. 2. Centers for Disease 21. Montana Department of Public Health & Human Services, Pan- Control, Quarantine for SARS, Taiwan (February 2005). Discusses demic Flu Talking Points, October 31, 2005. Provides a general de- the temporal effects of quarantine measures and other interven- scription of an influenza pandemic and the roles of the Montana tions on detection and isolation as well as the potential usefulness state health department. Briefly discusses whether quarantine or of quarantine in faster identification of persons with SARS and in isolation should be implemented during an epidemic. Available improving isolation measures. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ online: http://www.dphhs.mt.gov/PHSD/Communicable-disease/ ncidod/eid/vol11no02/pdfs/04-0190.pdf (April 27, 2007). pdf/pandemic_flu_FAQs_10-31-05.doc (April 27, 2007). 15. Gensini G, Yacoub M, Conti A., The Concept of Quarantine in 22. National Aviation Resource Material for Quarantinable Diseases, History: From Plague to SARS. Journal of Infection, 2004, Vol. 49 December 2006. A national aviation resource outlining the re- Pgs 257-261. Reviews the historical use of quarantine as a means to sponse to and recovery from a quarantinable disease incident of prevent the spread of infectious diseases, particularly during in- major public health significance at a U.S. international airport. stances where vaccines are unavailable. Determines that quarantine Provides a general guide for airport quarantinable disease planning used during prior epidemics still serves as an effective preventive Available online: http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/OST/013334.pdf measure. Available at: http://www.birdflubook.com/links.php. (April 27, 2007). 16. Homeland Security Council, National Strategy for Pandemic In- 23. National Incident Management System. Department of Homeland fluenza, November 2005. Discusses the national strategy to address Security. Available at: http://www.nrt.org/Production/NRT/ the threat of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Includes three pillars, NRTWeb.nsf/AllAttachmentsByTitle/SA-385aNIMS-90-web/$File/ which include preparedness and communication, surveillance and NIMS-90-web.pdf?OpenElement (April 27, 2007). detection, and response and containment. Available online: http:// 24. National Institute for Chemical Studies, Shelter-in-Place at Your www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/nspi.pdf (April 27, 2007). Office, February 2003. A general guide for planning shelter-in-place 17. Ingram, D., The Dynamics of SARS: Plotting the Risk of Epidemic Dis- activities for the workplace. Also provides shelter-in-place checklist asters. Discusses the SARS incident and the dynamics surrounding the for janitorial staff. Available online: http://www.nicsinfo.org/SIP%20 epidemic. Emphasizes the importance of creating a disease model to plan%20for%20offices%20NICS%20feb2003.pdf (April 27, 2007). predict the course of a disease. Mentions how quarantine measures 25. Public Health Agency of Canada, Quarantine, Travel Medicine and that were used during the SARS outbreak may have been the pri- Migration Health Programs, September 29, 2004. Provides a brief mary factor in containing SARS. Available online: http://www. synopsis on the Quarantine and Migration Health Program and its millimanbelgium.com/pubs/Healthcare/content/published_articles/ role in protecting Canadians from importation of infectious dis- Dynamics-SARS-Plotting-Risk-PA.pdf (April 27, 2007). eases. Also discusses its function in providing information and ad- 18. (Japan) Kansai International Airport--Quarantine/Immigration vice to other national and global stakeholders for epidemic con- Procedures illustrates standard quarantine procedures at Kansai tainment measures. Available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ international airport. Available online: http://www.kansai-airport. cepr-cmiu/ophs-bssp/quar_e.html (April 27, 2007). or.jp/en/route/intarr/index.html (April 27, 2007). 19. Large-scale quarantine following biological terrorism in the United 26. Public Health Service Act, United States Code 42 Chapter 64 Part States: scientific examination, logistical and legal limits, and possible G section 264. United States Food and Drug Administration. Avail- consequences. (December 5, 2001). Journal of the American Medical able at: http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/phsvcact/phsvcact.htm Association. Vol. 286: 2711-2717. Reviews the scientific principles (April 27, 2007). that are relevant to the likely effectiveness of quarantine, the logis- 27. SARS Info Center (SIC), SARS Worldwide Airport Screening Proce- tical barriers to its implementation, legal issues that a large-scale dures, May 2003. Provides information on screening procedures for quarantine raises, and possible adverse consequences that may result 45 international airports. Available at: http://www.bikesutra.com/ from quarantine action. Imposition of large-scale quarantine com- sars/airport_screen.html#sgn (April 27, 2007). pulsory sequestration of groups of possibly exposed persons or 28. Title 42-Public Health, Chapter 1-Public Health Service, Depart- human confinement within certain geographic areas to prevent the ment of Health and Human Services, Part 71--Foreign Quaran- spread of contagious disease; should not be considered a primary tine. Available at: http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_03/ public health strategy in most imaginable circumstances. In the ma- 42cfr71_03.html. jority of contexts, other less extreme public health actions are likely 29. US Constitution Article I--The Legislative Branch, Section 8-- to be more effective and create fewer unintended adverse conse- Powers of Congress. Available at: http://www.usconstitution.net/ quences than quarantine. Actions and areas for future research, pol- xconst_A1Sec8.html (April 27, 2007) icy development, and response planning efforts are provided. 30. World Health Organization, WHO pandemic influenza draft pro- 20. Minnesota Department of Health, Isolation and Quarantine Pro- tocol for rapid response and containment, January 2006. Outlines cedures, March 2005. Policy position paper that advocates sustain- procedures to be taken in the event of a pandemic influenza out- ing provisions formulated by the Minnesota Legislature to protect break, including quarantine, risk assessment, signal detection and people infected with communicable diseases or exposed to them. reporting, and training of response team. Taken from an interna- Provisions also included expedited court hearings and health safety tional standpoint, but could be modified to accommodate national and protection. Available online: http://www.health.state.mn.us/ needs. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/ divs/opa/isolation05.pdf (April 27, 2007). guidelines/RapidResponse_27%2001.pdf (April 27, 2007).