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9 from the spread of disease, then shelter models can be applied. Power requirements will be substantial and will involve more FEMA guidance for hurricanes (and any event of less than than back-up emergency power to keep exit lights illuminated. 36 hours duration) is a mere 10 square feet per person. Stan- dards for longer stays are double or triple that number. Thus, Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning at least 4,000 ft2 of space would be needed for personal space at a quarantine site. That amount does not include the space A quarantine area must have sufficient heating, ventilation, required for eating, recreation, offices, or ancillary services. and air conditioning (HVAC) systems to keep people rea- sonably comfortable. This is more than just for convenience: the old, the very young, and people with particular medical Transport to the Facility conditions are less tolerant of temperature extremes than the If the site is not directly accessible from the aircraft (either rest of the population. Portable HVAC units may have to be via a jet bridge to the terminal or via mobile stairs from a re- brought to the quarantine site, and ventilation will have to be mote parking location), the quarantine plan must include pro- evaluated by an HVAC expert. visions for the movement of the passengers and crew. If motor vehicles such as buses are used, this may involve quarantine of Lighting the operators and the decontamination of the vehicles. The building must have adequate lighting for daytime and nighttime use. Depending on how the building is used nor- Security mally, sufficient lighting may already be in place, although it People being held in quarantine must be protected from may not provide adequate task light or allow for lower light- harm, and their personal belongings (including luggage, if re- ing levels during the evening. turned to them) must be secure as well. Basic security measures and secure storage need to be provided. A security force must Sanitation be in place to ensure that the people being quarantined do not leave and that unauthorized people do not enter the facility. The sanitary needs of a group of people under quarantine Curious people, the press, politicians, and others will not be must be addressed. In all likelihood, the building will not have permitted to come into the area to observe or interview the enough toilets for 200 people. The structure or area may not people inside the quarantine area. Once in the area, a person re- have any facilities for bathing (showers). Between four to five mains there until released. Perimeter fencing and limited access (in-place or portable) toilets are recommended per 100 occu- to the building housing the quarantine area may be required. pants. For 200 people then, a minimum of 8 and preferably 10 toilets would be needed. One ADA-approved handicapped toilet also would be required. If the toilets are portable, plans Impact on Airport Operations must include pump out and cleaning. Depending on the facil- The location of the facility, and whether it is a multiple-use ity being used, portable sinks might also need to be provided. or dedicated facility, will have a direct impact on airport oper- Unless the quarantine is of very short duration, (e.g., less ations. Intra-airport transportation may need to be re-routed. than 24 hours), showers will have to be provided. Also, for a It is also possible that cordoning off an area could affect quarantine of up to two weeks, provisions must include laun- aircraft movements on taxiways and ramp areas. Airport dry service. Given the circumstances, an off-site service may managers and their staff would need to establish a Unified not be feasible. As an alternative, several washer/dryer units Command operation and mobilize their Emergency Opera- could be pre-deployed in a designated area. tions Center as the coordination site for additional personnel who will handle the media, help manage a family assistance Communications center, provide security, coordinate incoming volunteers, and manage the logistics of outside (private sector and gov- Quarantine planners will need to ensure that the site can be ernment) assistance. set up with communications links (telephone lines, internet, tel- evision, public address system) either through pre-established infrastructure or via wireless capability. Radios, batteries, and Accommodations power outlets for cell phone recharging will be needed. Power Source Animals If the building does not have adequate primary and backup power, generators and fuel supplies have to be available to keep Some travelers may arrive with pets or service animals (ser- the facility operational for the duration of the quarantine. vice animals such as guide dogs are not considered pets and are