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13 levels for both feeder services and route deviation services, systems dedicate specific vehicles to these programs. While as these are usually integrated into systemwide paratransit or the same vehicle types may be used as in paratransit, vehicles fixed-route services, and it is not possible to isolate the por- in integrated services often are branded differently to distin- tions of trips that can be attributed to the integrated service guish them from other services. In Whatcom County, small component. However, Table 3 indicates that a few programs vehicles (less than 29 feet) in the deviation service also have established three to four trips per hour as minimum are used as backup for paratransit, while those longer than productivity thresholds for continuation of their integrated 29 feet are used for deviated and fixed-route services. services. Overall, productivities range from just over two in rural areas to almost 10 trips per hour in suburban Broward COST SAVINGS County, Florida, and where comparative information is avail- able, the productivities of the integrated service almost always Since integrated service is often provided as part of a package exceed that of the paratransit program in that area. of innovative service models, it is often challenging to isolate the cost benefits that can be attributed to these services. How- ever, a number of interesting findings have been documented. Staff Training and Driver Selection In the in-depth analysis conducted as part of the TCRP Web Document 2: Evaluating Transit Options for Individuals with Most systems indicate that training provided to integrated ser- Disabilities, (Multisystems and Crain & Associates 1997) vices staff is the same as that provided to paratransit staff. cost savings from feeder service were calculated at Pierce However, in Pittsburgh drivers are trained to read special codes Transit and BC Transit (now known as TransLink). Annual in their manifests that include fixed-route bus time information. operating savings from reduced paratransit vehicle time were Schedulers also are trained about the mission of the various estimated at $139,000 for BC Transit (1.3% of total para- integrated service programs, and are provided specialized train- transit budget) and $147,000 at Pierce Transit (1.2%). Since ing on the importance of on-time performance and reliability, BC Transit operated in a non-ADA environment, feeder particularly when transfers to fixed-route are involved. In service provided travel opportunities that might not exist Broward County, drivers in the Community Bus Service are otherwise, and did not previously exist. Therefore there was required to undergo both municipality and county trainings. no basis for calculating any savings from reduced demand. However, the reduction in demand at Pierce Transit resulted Overall, given that integrated services can contribute to an in a cost savings estimated at $709,000, which, combined increase in fixed-route ridership by people with disabilities, with the savings from the reduced paratransit vehicle time, bus drivers may need to receive additional sensitivity train- represented 7.5% of the total paratransit budget. ing if this is not already incorporated into the driver training curriculum. At the UTA system, the staff person explained In the sample included in this synthesis, the San Joaquin the agency's approach to bus driver training as follows: When Regional Transit District estimates that total transit service the free fare program was implemented, staff retrained the operating cost was reduced by 50% in the rural areas where fixed-route drivers with the following message: "our vehicles route deviation services replaced separate fixed-route and para- are all 100% accessible, now your attitudes must be 100% transit service in San Joaquin County. A number of sampled accessible and inclusive. Either you as the fixed-route drivers agencies indicated that they assumed there were cost savings can help passengers with the transition to fixed-route and simply because of the lower costs per trips of the different make sure it's successful, or the paratransit department will modes, but have not documented this assumed savings. have to take your operating money to continue providing transportation to our disabled population" (Cheryl Beveridge, personal communication, March 6, 2008). UTA has introduced a package of measures to encourage fixed-route usage for its ADA paratransit registrants. The Driver selection for integrated services is generally bid agency has documented very significant savings that can be based on seniority. Drivers select their own assignments attributed to the introduction of more accurate eligibility screenings, feeder service, free fixed-route fares for ADA through the markup procedure outlined in the labor agree- paratransit eligible riders, and a buddy ride-along program. ments. In Sacramento, all drivers in the regional transit sys- Annual savings accrued from the resultant decline in para- tem are hired into Community Bus first, with an option to move into "big buses" over time. In contrast to this approach, transit ridership have exceeded $350,000 four out of five in Laketran, Ohio, drivers selected for integrated service are years since 2002. likely to have been with the agency for a few years and have WTA serving northwestern Washington state, estimates a full understanding of the system and the customers' needs. that annual cost savings of as much as $350,000 have been accrued from the provision of FLEX service instead of fixed- Vehicles Used in Integrated Services route and complementary paratransit service in their rural areas. Route deviations account for about 9% of the total trips Vehicles used in integrated services are almost invariably the on this service, many for individuals who would be ADA same as those used in paratransit services, although many paratransit eligible.

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TABLE 3 RIDERSHIP AND PRODUCTIVITIES Current Productivity of Current Paratransit Annual Integrated Service Productivity Productivity Threshold Annual Integrated Paratransit (Boardings per (Boardings per (Boardings per System Name Service Type(s) Service Ridership Ridership Vehicle Revenue Hour) Vehicle Revenue Hour) Vehicle Revenue Hour) ACCESS Transportation Systems Feeder Service 2,500 1.7 million 2.3 (Allegheny County) Demand-response local circulators 3.8 which also serve major transit stops Agency for Community Transit, Feeder approx. 30,000 120,000 Granite City IL Amador Regional Transit System Point/Route Deviation 106,042 N/A Broward County Paratransit Circulator or Community Bus 2,178,863 834,204 9.5 1.7 5 Services Laketran Feeder Service/Demand 1,040 337,000 Responsive Connector Mason Transit, WA Demand Responsive Connector 55,466 2.3 Mountain Mobility, Asheville, NC Point/Route Deviation 8,238, 113,961 2.2 40% disabled (est.) OTS (Honolulu, HI) Point/Route Deviation 83,697, disabled 1,314 807,935 7.7 2.5 4 Pierce Transit Demand Responsive Connector 19,600 363,000 Feeder 8,536 Point/Route Deviation 120,000 3 Regional Transportation District Demand Responsive Connector 303,323 5,000 people 596,384 4.7 1.2 3 (Denver, CO) with disabilities Sacramento Regional Transit Circulator/Community Bus 397,311, about 15,000 12.3 District Route Deviation disabled Stockton, CA Hopper service Route Deviation Connector 135,000 84,000 4.6 3 Whatcom Transportation Authority Circulator or Community Bus 1,446 159,177 2.3 3.1 Route Deviation 95,754 9.6 UTA, Salt Lake City Feeder N/A 484,000 2.2 Lane Transit District Feeder Service 404 121,074 TransLink Vancouver Feeder Service over 6,000 1,087,000 2.1 N/A = not available.

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15 Another example that illustrates the substantial savings that Fixed-route fare incentives represent another significant can be accrued through shifting paratransit riders onto inte- cost saving that is not based on service operations, but grated service may be found in the Denver region Call-n-Ride rather a policy that promotes integration of fixed-route and program. By taking into account the difference between an paratransit services. In Los Angeles, ASI offers paratransit ADA paratransit ride (approximately $50 per trip) and a Call-n- riders a Free Fare Program to ride the various fixed-route Ride trip ($15 per trip) and documenting the percentage of rid- systems in the county. ASI estimates that in 2007 1.3 mil- ers who board with an ADA card, the agency has estimated that lion fixed-route trips were taken by ADA paratransit regis- annual savings in 2008 could reach $458,000. These estimates trants, which represented a cost savings to the agency of include both amortized capital as well as operating costs. $26 million.