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modifying routes to obtain operating and cost advantages of HOV lanes, not as a primary influ- ence on overall route planning, but as a consideration where HOV lanes are available. Four pub- lic operators found HOV lanes to have positively influenced operations, while two were not positioned such that use of the lanes produced significant benefit overall. Public Perceptions MOEs 5D and 5E were addressed with findings from a telephone survey of the general public, a license plate mail-out survey, and an on-board bus rider survey. Among general public survey respondents, 72 percent agreed that HOV lanes are more efficient than GP lanes, but 42 percent thought they were underutilized. They most often (40 percent) listed more transit investment as the best approach to improving freeway traffic flow, ahead of more freeways or free- way lanes (36 percent) and more HOV lanes (21 percent). HOV lane utilization perceptions of high- way users and transit users intercepted in the license plate and on-board surveys were not markedly different than those of the general public. Among highway users, 91 percent of those using HOV lanes and 73 percent of those not using HOV lanes believed that HOV facilities "are a good transportation improvement." Sources. Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., Kaku Associates, Inc., Texas Transportation Institute, Strategic Consulting & Research, and HS Public Affairs, "HOV Performance Program Evaluation Report." Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (November 22, 2002a). Consolidated presentation of HOV evaluation results and additional interpretation by Handbook authors. REFERENCES Abbanat, B. A., Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (GNG) Vehicles in California Households. Master of Science Thesis in Transportation Technology and Policy, University of California, Davis (2001). Arnold, E. D., Jr., Changes in Travel in the Shirley Highway Corridor 19831986. Virginia Transportation Council, Richmond, VA (1987). Benke, R. J., Ramp Meter Bypass for Carpools. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN (1976). Beroldo, S., "Casual Carpooling in the San Francisco Bay Area." Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 1, Eno Foundation, Westport, CT (January, 1990). Betts, S. M., Jacobson, L. N., and Rickman, T. D., I-5 HOV Lanes: Three Month Report. Washington State Department of Transportation, Seattle, WA (1983). Bhatt, K., "International Road Pricing Experience." Session ET-2b: Application of Public Transit and Land Use Strategies for VMT Reduction and Environmental Benefit, Air & Waste Management Association 96th Annual Conference and Exhibition: Environment in the Balance, San Diego, CA (June 2226, 2003). Billheimer, J. W., Moore, J. B., and Stamm, H., High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Marketing Manual. Prepared by Systan, Inc., for the Federal Highway Administration. Los Altos, CA (September, 1994). BMI, T. Y. Lin International, Travesky & Associates, Ltd., SG Associates, Inc., Gallop Corporation, MCV Associates, Inc., "I-95/I-395 HOV Restriction Study." Volume I: Summary Report. Prepared for Virginia Department of Transportation (February, 1999a). 2-117

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BMI, T. Y. Lin International, Travesky & Associates, Ltd., SG Associates, Inc., Gallop Corporation, MCV Associates, Inc., "I-95/I-395 HOV Restriction Study." Volume II: Technical Supplement. Prepared for Virginia Department of Transportation (February, 1999b). Buckeye, K. R., "I-394 MnPASS: Performance Update." Presentation with visuals to the TRB Managed Lanes Joint Subcommittee AHB35(1), Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC (January 23, 2006). Bullard, D. L., An Assessment of Carpool Utilization of the Katy High-Occupancy Vehicle Lane and Characteristics of Houston's HOV Lane Users and Non-Users. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX (1991). Burris, M. W., and Appiah, J., "An Examination of Houston's QuickRide Participants by Frequency of QuickRide Usage." Transportation Research Record 1864 (2004). Burris, M. W., and Hannay, R. L., "Equity Analysis of the Houston, Texas, QuickRide Project." Transportation Research Record 1859 (2003). Burris, M. W., and Stockton, B. R, "HOT Lanes in Houston--Six Years of Experience." Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 7., No 3 (2004). Burris, M. W., and Winn, J. R., "Slugging in Houston--Casual Carpool Passenger Characteristics." TRB 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM. Washington, DC (January 2226, 2006). California Department of Transportation, "Ridesharing Facilities and Services." Sacramento, CA (1979). California Department of Transportation, "Route 55 Status Information Sheet." Sacramento, CA (1992). Cambridge Systematics, Inc., and URS, Inc., "Twin Cities HOV Study." Volume I, Final Report. Prepared for Minnesota Department of Transportation. Oakland, CA (February, 2002). Christiansen, D. L., and Morris, D. E., An Evaluation of the Houston High-Occupancy Vehicle Lane System. Prepared by the Texas Transportation Institute for the Texas State Department of Highways and Transportation in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration. Washington, DC (June, 1991). Christiansen, D. L., and Morris, D. E., The Status and Effectiveness of the Houston Transitway System, 1989. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX (1990). City of Bellevue, "Bellevue Transit Plan (20012007)." Bellevue, WA (June 2, 2003). Collier, T., and Goodin, G., Managed Lanes: A Cross-Cutting Study. Research prepared by the Texas Transportation Institute in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (November, 2004). Communication Technologies, "Survey of Highway 237 Commute Lane Users." Prepared for the Santa Clara Transportation Agency and the Santa Clara County Traffic Authority, Santa Clara, CA (1989). Comsis Corporation, "Models of Mode- and Occupancy-Choice in the Shirley Highway Corridor. Final Report." Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration. Silver Spring, MD (May, 1989). 2-118

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Connecticut Department of Transportation, "High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Study." Staff Paper, Hartford, CT (December, 1998). County of Santa Clara, "Comprehensive County Expressway Planning Study: Implementation Plan." Roads and Airports Department, San Jose, CA (August 19, 2003). Crain & Associates, "San Bernardino Expressway Bus Evaluation of Mixed-Mode Operations." Southern California Association of Governments, Los Angeles, CA (1978). Daniels, G., and Stockton, W. R., "Cost-Effectiveness of High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes in Texas." Transportation Research Record 1711 (2000). Federal Highway Administration, "High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Facilities--Find an HOV Facility." Office of Operations, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (Website accessed August 7, 2005a). Federal Highway Administration, "Value Pricing Project Quarterly Reports--January-March 2005." Office of Transportation Policy Studies. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC [2005b]. Ginsberg, S., "Hybrids Putting More Virginians in the Fast Lane: HOV Exemption Upsets Carpooling Commuters." Washington Post (April 26, 2004). Goodell, R. G. B., Preferential Access for Multi-Occupant Vehicles at Metered On-Ramps. California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA (Undated). Gurin, D., "Rights of Passage." New York Affairs, Vol. 7 (1982). Hallenbeck, M. E., Nee, J., Ishimaru, J. M., and Kopf, J. M., Evaluation of Puget Sound HOV Lane Hours of Operation: One-Year Results. Draft. Prepared for the Washington State Transportation Commission by the Washington State Transportation Center, Seattle, WA (December, 2004). Henderson, D., Vandervalk, K. A., and Cromartie, K., "I-95 Performance Monitoring in South Florida." Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. CD ROM (August 913, 1998). High-Occupancy Vehicle Enforcement Task Force, "Report of the High-Occupancy Vehicle Enforcement Task Force." Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, VA (August 15, 2003). High-Occupancy Vehicle Enforcement Task Force, "Second Report of the High-Occupancy Vehicle Enforcement Task Force." Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, VA (January 4, 2005). Ho, P., Barnet/Hastings People Moving Project Monitoring and Evaluation Program After-Implementation Study. Ministry of Transportation and Highways, Vancouver, BC, Canada (1996). Howard, C., MacDonald, D. B., and Hammond, P., Report on MnPASS I-394 HOT Lane Project "Get in and Go." Prepared for the Washington State Transportation Commission by the Washington State Department of Transportation (January 19, 2005). Institute of Transportation Engineers, "The Effectiveness of High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities." Washington, DC (1988). 2-119

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Johnston, R. A., and Ceerla, R., "The Effects of New High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes on Travel and Emissions." Transportation Research A, Vol. 30, No. 1 (1996). Klusza, R., Route 55 Three-Year Status Report. California Department of Transportation, Los Angeles, CA (1989). Kozlak, C., and Thompson, N., Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Transportation, respectively, St. Paul, MN. Email and attachments to the Handbook authors (February 2728, 2006). Kuzmyak, J. R., Madison Avenue Dual Exclusive Bus Lane Demonstration - New York City. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (1984). Leman, C. K., Schiller, P. L., and Pauly, K., High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities and the Public Interest. The Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Annapolis, MD (1994). Levinson, H. S., Hoey, W. F., Sanders, D. B., and Wynn, F. H., "Bus Use of Highways: State of the Art." NCHRP Report 143, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1973). Levinson, H. S., Zimmerman, S., Clinger, J., Rutherford, S., Smith, R. L., Cracknell, J., Soberman, R., Gast, J., and Bruhn, E., "Bus Rapid Transit--Volume 1: Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit--Volume 2: Implementation Guidelines." TCRP Report 90, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (2003). Lisco, T., Central Transportation Planning Staff, Boston, MA. Telephone interviews and unpub- lished tabulations (September-October, 1999). LKC Consulting Services, Inc., and Texas Transportation Institute, "Public Acceptance of QuickRide: Draft Final Report." Prepared for Houston Metro, Houston, TX (December, 1998). MacLennan, R., "Houston Transitway Project." Proceedings, Second National Conference on High- Occupancy Vehicle Lanes and Transitways, October 2528, 1987, Houston, Texas. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX [1988]. McQueen, J. T., Levinsohn, D. M., Waksman, R., and Miller, G. K., The Shirley Highway Express-Bus-on- Freeway Demonstration Project: Final Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (1975). Martin, P. T., Perrin, J., Wu, P., and Lambert, R., Evaluation of the Effectiveness of High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes. University of Utah. Disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation, University Centers Program (May, 2004). Martin, P. T., Stevanovic, A., and Lahon, D., "Developing a Forecasting Model for Managed Lanes Using Data from Utah's High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes." TRB 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM. Washington, DC (January 2226, 2006). Metropolitan Transportation Commission, "1997 High-Occupancy Vehicle Lane Master Plan Update for the San Francisco Bay Area." Oakland, CA (November, 1997). Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, "1997 Performance of Regional High- Occupancy Vehicle Facilities on Interstate Highways in the Washington Region--An Analysis of Person and Vehicle Volumes and Vehicle Travel Times." Washington, DC (1998). 2-120

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Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, "2004 Performance of Regional High- Occupancy Vehicle Facilities on Freeways in the Washington Region." Draft. Washington, DC (July 22, 2005). Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, "MetroCore Cordon Count, Total Person Travel on HOV Shirley Highway." Washington, DC (1991). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-394 HOV Report 1998--1st Quarter January-March." St. Paul, MN (1998a). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-394 HOV Report 2005--1st Quarter January-March." St. Paul, MN (2005a). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-394 HOV Report including MnPASS Data 2005--3rd Quarter July-September." St. Paul, MN (2005b). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-35W HOV Report: 1998--2nd Quarter April-June." St. Paul, MN (1998b). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-35W HOV Report: 2005--3rd Quarter July-September." St. Paul, MN (2005c). Monahan, M. J., "Integration of Buses/HOV and Urban Street Operations." ITE 1990 Compendium of Technical Papers--60th ITE Annual Meeting. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC (1990). Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, "Proposed Strategy for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes." Toronto, ON, Canada (1997). Muriello, M. F., The Lincoln Tunnel Exclusive Bus Lane. Presentation to the 12th International HOV Systems Conference, Houston, TX (April 19, 2005). New Jersey Department of Transportation, "I-287 and I-80 HOV Reassessment." Trenton, NJ (1998). New York City Department of Transportation, "A Report on Policies and Programs." New York, NY (July, 1983). Paiewonsky, L., "A New Approach to HOV Entry Requirements: MassHighway's 3/Limited 2 Sticker Program." Transportation Research Record 1634 (1998). Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., "Arterial High-Occupancy Vehicle Study." Southern California Association of Governments, Los Angeles, CA (1991). Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., Kaku Associates, Inc., Texas Transportation Institute, Strategic Consulting & Research, and HS Public Affairs, "HOV Performance Program Evaluation Report." Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (November 22, 2002a). Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., Kaku Associates, Inc., Texas Transportation Institute, Strategic Consulting & Research, and HS Public Affairs, "HOV Performance Program, Technical Memorandum No. 12: License Plate Survey." Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (November 22, 2002b). 2-121

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Schofer, J. L., and Czepiel, E. J., "Success Factors and Design Issues for High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities." Transportation Research Record 1711 (2000). Schwartz, S. I., Hollander, A., Louie, C., and Amoruso, R., "Madison Avenue Dual Width Bus Lane Project." Transportation Research Record 854 (1982). Serumgard, G., and Dierling, M., "Buses Win Twin Cities Rush Hour Race!" 1996 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 66th Annual Meeting (1996). Serumgard, G., Metropolitan Council Transit Operations, St. Paul, MN. Telephone Interview (September 4, 1998). Shivashankar, P., Steffey, D., and Supernak, J., "I-15 FasTrak Use Patterns--The Project Versus Post Project Period." TRB 2004 Annual Meeting CD-ROM (January, 2004). Simkowitz, H. J., A Comparative Analysis of Results From Three Recent Non-Separated Concurrent-Flow High Occupancy Freeway Lane Projects: Boston, Santa Monica and Miami. Transportation Systems Center, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Final Report. Cambridge, MA (June, 1978). Spielberg, F., and Shapiro, P., "Mating Habits of Slugs: Dynamic Carpool Formation in the I-95/ I-395 Corridor of Northern Virginia." Transportation Research Record 1711 (2000). SRF, Inc., "I-394 Interim HOV Lane: A Case Study." Wayzata, MN (1987). SRF, Inc., "I-394 HOV Lane Case Study: Final Report." Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN (1995). St. Jacques, K., and Levinson, H. S., "Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials" (including unpublished appendices). TCRP Report 26, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1997). Stockton, B., Daniels, G., Hall, K., and Christiansen, D., An Evaluation of High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes in Texas, 1996. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX (1997). Sucher, P., "HOV Facilities and the Environment." Proceedings--8th International Conference on High-Occupancy Vehicle Systems, August 2528, 1996, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1997). Sverdrup/Urbitran, "Gowanus Expressway Bus/HOV Lane Continuation Study--Phase I." Submitted to New York Department of Transportation, Region 11, New York, NY (1998). Texas Transportation Institute, "Dallas HOV Lane Quarterly Data--Second Quarter." College Station, TX (1998a). Texas Transportation Institute, "Houston High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Operations Summary." College Station, TX (December, 2004). Texas Transportation Institute, "Houston High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Operations Summary Quarterly Report." College Station, TX (September, 1998b). 2-123

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