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part of a series of evaluations, others of which contain additional assessments of different aspects of the Texas (and particularly Houston) facilities. The FHWA report, "Houston Managed Lanes Case Study" (Turnbull, 2003) updates key information on the Houston HOV System including the ongoing managed lanes development process in the I-10W Katy Freeway corridor. A "Managed Lanes" Website (http://managed-lanes.tamu.edu/) covers university research underway in coop- eration with the Texas Department of Transportation and FHWA (Texas Transportation Institute and Texas Southern University, 2005). Other useful state-oriented websites include, but are cer- tainly not limited to: the Virginia Department of Transportation's VDOT Travel Center Website (http://www.virginiadot.org/comtravel/hov-default.asp), with its "High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV) Systems" Webpages; the Washington State Department of Transportation's HOV Lanes Website (http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/HOV/default.htm); and the Minnesota Department of Transportation "MnPASS System" Website focused on the I-394 HOT lanes (http://www. mnpass.org/systemstudy.html). NCHRP Report 143, "Bus Use of Highways: State of the Art" (Levinson et al., 1973) remains the most comprehensive source of information and case studies for conventional arterial street bus lanes, as well as providing an early view of freeway applications. TCRP Report 26, "Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials" (St. Jacques and Levinson, 1997) contains extensive bus travel time data and estimating techniques. Two-volume TCRP Report 90, "Bus Rapid Transit" includes informa- tion on use of HOV lanes by the emerging public transit application known as "BRT," along with suggested planning, design, operational, and financial guidelines, and numerous case studies (Levinson et al., 2003). TCRP Report 95 covers BRT and other transit service uses of HOV lanes in Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Bus." NCHRP Project 8-36B Task 52, "Changes in Travel Behavior/Demand Associated with Managed- Lanes Facility System Expansion" promises to serve, upon completion, as a source of updated and expanded subject matter for both Chapter 14, "Road Value Pricing," and this "HOV Facilities" chapter. The NCHRP project seeks to glean information on behavioral responses from empirical data obtained in managed lanes implementation studies and to examine the travel demand and revenue forecasting methods employed. A project webpage with useful links has been posted at http://www.its.pdx.edu/managedlanes.php. CASE STUDIES Houston HOV System Situation. The Houston metropolitan area has a population of approximately 3 million people. The area is characterized by low density development typical of most southwestern cities. Houston's HOV facilities are part of the multifaceted approach being taken to manage traffic congestion, address air quality concerns, and improve mobility in the area. Their design is a response to sig- nificant congestion on the freeways and limited available right-of-way. Employment in downtown Houston, the major focus of the HOV system, exceeds 150,000. Actions. A 9-mile contraflow HOV lane on the I-45 North Freeway was implemented as a demon- stration project in 1979. The design borrowed an off-peak direction traffic lane for use by buses and vanpools traveling in the peak direction. Operating 2.5 hours in each of the peak periods, morn- ing and afternoon, the contraflow lane carried some 8,000 persons during the morning period. The success of this facility resulted in the development and operation of an extensive system of HOV 2-99

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lanes, park-and-ride lots, and improved transit services. As of 2005, 104 miles of HOV lanes are in operation, providing preferential treatment to buses, vanpools, and carpools. The most recent addition is the US 59N Eastex HOV lane. The initial 12 miles of the Eastex facility opened in March 1999, an additional 3 miles opened in February 2000, and 5 more miles opened in January 2004, for a US 59N total of 20 miles. The currently operating HOV lanes are primarily one-lane, reversible, barrier separated facilities, located in the median of six freeways. A limited extent of two-lane, two-direction sections exist. The reversible lanes operate in the inbound direction from 5:00 AM to 12:00 PM and in the out- bound direction from 2:00 PM to 9:00 PM. A 2 vehicle occupancy requirement is used on all the HOV facilities with two exceptions. The I-10W Katy facility is restricted to 3 HOVs from 6:45 AM to 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM to 6:00 PM and the US 290 Northwest HOV lane is restricted to 3 car- pools from 6:45 AM to 8:00 AM only. The new Northwest HOV lane restriction was implemented in June 1999. The QuickRide demonstration was initiated in January 1998 allowing 2 person carpools to use the Katy HOV lane during the 3 restricted periods for a fee. The same QuickRide program was extended to the Northwest HOV lane, mornings only, in November 2000. The Houston HOV sys- tem has been developed and is operated through the cooperative efforts of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) and the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (METRO). Analysis. An extensive monitoring and evaluation program has been sponsored by TxDOT, with support from METRO, providing consistency of data collection throughout the life of the Houston HOV system. In addition to various types of roadway, bus, and park-and-ride utilization counts, it has included before and after data collection, and periodic occupancy counts, travel time sur- veys, user surveys, and research reports. From the 1990s on, it has benefited from an AVI traffic monitoring system that provides real-time and historical traffic information on freeways, HOV lanes, and toll roads in Houston through the use of AVI readers spaced at approximately 1 to 5 mile intervals. Results. Vehicle volumes, person volume levels, AVOs and other information on the five HOV lanes and adjacent freeway lanes operating as of 1998 are displayed in Table 2-32. Other tables in the body of this chapter, Tables 2-3, 2-4, 2-15, 2-20, 2-21, 2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27 and 2-31 in particu- lar, provide additional Houston HOV system data, much of which is not repeated here. Since the January 1998 implementation of the QuickRide program, QuickRide patrons have been included within the overall carpool count, because they are two-occupant carpoolers. Between 1998 and the fourth quarter of 2004, AM peak-hour person volumes on the five HOV lanes present in both years have increased overall by 1.4 percent, from 20,378--the total of the individual corridor counts provided in Table 2-32--to 20,656. However, the corresponding five- facility vehicle count decreased overall by 9.6 percent, from 6,759 to 6,113 vehicles. With the new Eastex HOV lane added in for 2004, the six-facility totals become 22,315 AM peak-hour person trips (a 9.5 percent systemwide increase) and 6,538 vehicle trips (a 3.3 percent systemwide decrease). A partial explanation for this 1998 to 2004 efficiency increase lies in the peak-of-the- AM-peak-period carpool occupancy requirement increase on the Northwest (US 290) HOV lane, from HOV 2 to HOV 3, with toll-paying HOV 2 carpools allowed under the QuickRide pro- gram. Northwest HOV lane AM peak-hour vehicle volumes went down from 1,551 in 1998 to 1,201 in 2004. In 2004, Northwest HOV lane person volumes remained somewhat deflated as well, down from 4,073 in 1998 to 3,556 in the 2004 AM peak hour. A broader-based contributor to the efficiency increase, however, was an increase in peak bus ridership between 1998 and the December 2004 counts. 2-100

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Table 2-32 1998 Houston HOV Lane Parameters and Weekday Utilization Data HOV Lane Katy North Gulf Northwest Southwest (I-10W) (I-45N) (I-45S) (US 290) (US 59) Length (miles) 13 13.5 12.1 13.5 12.2 Opening Date 1984 1984 1988 1988 1993 Number HOV/General Lanes 1/3 1/4 1/4 1/3 1/5 HOV Lane Person Volume AM Peak-Hour Total 3,464 4,836 3,424 4,073 4,581 Buses 1,355 2,100 740 1,035 1,420 Carpools/Vanpools 2,091 2,725 2,682 3,030 3,147 Motorcycles 18 11 2 8 14 Daily Total 19,619 18,303 12,316 14,939 17,510 HOV Lane Vehicle Volume AM Peak-Hour Total 953a 1,405 1,332 1,551 1,518 Buses 40 53 31 22 38 Carpools/Vanpools 895a 1,341 1,299 1,521 1,466 Motorcycles b 18 11 2 8 14 Daily Total 6,635 5,407 4,646 5,687 5,874 AM Peak-Hour Average Vehicle Occupancy HOV Lane Buses Only 34 40 24 47 37 HOV Lane Carpool/Vanpools Only 2.34a 2.03 2.06 1.99 2.15 Total HOV Lane 3.63a 3.44 2.57 2.63 3.02 General Purpose Lanes 1.12 1.02 1.07 1.05 1.07 Percent of Total Person Movement that 40% 40% 24% 41% 26% Occurs in the HOV Lane, AM Peak Hour c Park-and-Ride Lots Number of Spaces 5,694 7,386 3,018 3,852 7,308 Vehicles Parked 2,892 3,642 1,694 2,156 2,528 Percent Occupied 51% 50% 56% 56% 35% a Notes: Carpool vehicle-occupancy restricted to 3+ during peak times, 2+ in shoulders of peak, with QuickRide Program in operation. b Inclusion of motorcycles in this tabulation results in corresponding differences in totals and AVOs relative to other tables. c Data collected at HOV lane maximum load point. The remaining percentage is in the freeway general-purpose lanes. Sources: Stockton et al. (1997), Texas Transportation Institute (1998b). The HOV lanes accounted for 40 percent of the AM peak-hour total person movement on three of the freeways involved in 1998, and a quarter of it on the other two. Morning peak- hour AVO increases from before HOV lane opening to 1996 ranged from a 2 percent decline on the Gulf Freeway to roughly 10 per- cent increases on the North and Southwest Freeways and approximately 20 percent increases on the Katy and Northwest Freeways (see Table 2-31). The 1998 AM peak-hour carpool, vanpool and bus AVO for the five HOV lanes ranged from 2.6 to 3.6, averaging 3.0, while the general-purpose (GP) lanes AVO ranged from 1.02 to 1.12. The corresponding HOV lane average AVO in 2004 was up, to 3.4, with or with- out inclusion of the new Eastex HOV lane--ranging from an AM peak-hour low of 2.9 on the I-45S Gulf Freeway HOV lane up to 4.2 on the I-45N North Freeway HOV lane with its substantial bus ridership. 2-101

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Morning peak-hour travel time savings measured in 1996 range from 2 to 22 minutes on the dif- ferent HOV lanes, as shown previously in Table 2-21. More recent travel time savings published in 2004 for the HOV lanes now under the QuickRide HOT lane program are 17 minutes on the Katy facility in the AM, 15 minutes in the PM, and 10 minutes on the Northwest Freeway facility in the AM. In addition, the HOV lanes provide more reliable trip times to carpoolers, vanpoolers, and bus riders, as illustrated earlier in Figures 2-1 and 2-2. The HOV lanes and direct access ramps have resulted in significantly increased METRO bus oper- ating speeds. On average, the peak-hour operating speeds have almost doubled, from 26 mph to 54 mph, resulting in significant reductions in bus schedule times. Examples of the reductions in the AM peak-hour scheduled time for buses from park-and-ride lots to downtown Houston include from 45 to 24 minutes from the Addicks park-and-ride lot on the Katy HOV lane, from 40 to 25 minutes from the Edgebrook park-and-ride lot on the Gulf HOV lane, and from 50 to 30 min- utes from the Northwest Station park-and-ride lot on the Northwest HOV lane. An extensive network of park-and-ride lots is part of the HOV system in Houston, and expansion is ongoing. A total of 27,258 spaces were provided at 26 park-and-ride and park-and-pool lots in five corridors as of 1998. In 2004, the total was up to 32,415 spaces in 31 lots in six corridors. Corridor average utilization in 1998 ranged from 35 percent along the Southwest HOV lane to 56 percent along the Gulf and Northwest HOV lanes. This pattern continues. Corridor average parking space utilization in December 2004 ranged from 36 to 67 percent, with an overall average of 53 percent. From the perspective of parking facility type, average overall utilization levels were 35 percent for park-and-pool lots and 54 percent for park-and-ride lots. The park-and-ride lots generally accom- modate some degree of park-and-pool activity, including casual carpooling in certain locations. The Houston HOV lanes and supporting facilities and services have influenced commuters to change from driving alone to taking a high occupancy mode. Surveys indicate that between 38 and 46 percent of bus riders formerly drove alone, while 40 to 57 percent of the vanpoolers and carpoolers on the dif- ferent lanes were former solo drivers. The HOV lanes appear to be important factors in the decision to change modes. For example, in surveys conducted in 1988, 1989, and 1990, between 54 and 76 per- cent of the bus riders using the Houston HOV lanes responded that the opening of the HOV lanes was very important in their decision to ride a bus. Further, between 22 and 39 percent of the respondents in those surveys indicated that they would not be riding the bus if the HOV lane had not been opened. The ongoing surveys of HOV lane users and motorists in the GP lanes have included questions designed to obtain feedback on the general perception toward the HOV lanes and support for these facilities. Over the years, between 40 and 81 percent of motorists in the GP lanes on freeways with HOV facilities and on one freeway without an HOV lane have responded positively that the HOV facilities are a good transportation improvement. More . . . The Houston QuickRide HOT program, in operation on the I-10W Katy Freeway and the US 290 Northwest Freeway HOV lanes, has been decidedly low-key. As indicated in the "Traveler Response by Type of HOV Application" section under "Response to HOV Facility Exempt Vehicle and Value Pricing Programs"--"Expansion of HOV Facility Functions to High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Status," I-10W Katy Freeway QuickRide usage in 2003 averaged 86 morning vehicle trips and 55 afternoon trips. (As noted there, the Katy Freeway experience with QuickRide is mainly con- tained within Chapter 14, "Road Value Pricing.") The 2003 average for US 290 Northwest Freeway was 67 morning vehicle trips, for 208 Houston weekday QuickRide vehicle trips total, systemwide. This total is up from 182 in 2002 and 131 in 2000. Despite the small numbers, QuickRide usage has been the subject of extensive study as Houston moves toward provision of full-scale managed lanes facilities featuring broader application of value pricing. 2-102

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Of respondents to a 2003 QuickRide participant survey, 84 percent made 0 to 1 QuickRide trips a week, while 11 percent were mid-level users, and a mere 5 percent were frequent users at 5 to 10 trips a week on the Katy and 4 to 5 trips a week on the mornings-only Northwest operation. The usual QuickRide carpool partner is typically a co-worker (41 percent), an adult family member (36 percent), or a child (25 percent).7 Casual carpoolers are, at 7 percent, 2-1/2 times as likely to be the QuickRide carpool partner as a neighbor. While socio-economic characteristics such as age were significantly related to frequency of QuickRide usage, hourly wage rate was not. On the other hand, vanishingly small numbers of QuickRide participants (transponder holders) reported household incomes less than $25,000 annually, while 62 percent reported annual incomes of $100,000 or more. This may, however, be more a function of the particular travel corridors involved than anything else. While an earlier Katy Freeway survey found QuickRide participants to have an average 1998 household income of $103,454, it also found non-users to have an average income only 9 percent lower, at $94,194. Katy Freeway QuickRide trip makers were found to obtain benefit as long as they each valued their time at a two-person carpool average of $3.00 per hour or more. Sources. Texas Transportation Institute, "Houston High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Operations Summary Quarterly Report." College Station, TX (September, 1998b). Stockton, B., Daniels, G., Hall, K., and Christiansen, D., An Evaluation of High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes in Texas, 1996. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX (1997). Bullard, D. L., An Assessment of Carpool Utilization of the Katy High- Occupancy Vehicle Lane and Characteristics of Houston's HOV Lane Users and Non-Users. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX (1991). Turnbull, K. F., Turner, P. A., and Lindquist, N. F., Investigation of Land Use, Development, and Parking Policies to Support the Use of High-Occupancy Vehicles in Texas. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX (1995). Texas Transportation Institute, "Houston High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Operations Summary." College Station, TX (December, 2004). Burris, M. W., and Appiah, J., "An Examination of Houston's QuickRide Participants by Frequency of QuickRide Usage." Transportation Research Record 1864 (2004). Burris, M. W., and Hannay, R. L., "Equity Analysis of the Houston, Texas, QuickRide Project." Transportation Research Record 1859 (2003). Shirley Highway (I-95/I-395) HOV Lanes Situation. I-95/I-395 is central to a congested commuter corridor in Northern Virginia, serving downtown Washington, DC, and Arlington, Virginia. The Shirley Highway (I-395) HOV lanes have been in operation for over 30 years and served as the first major freeway HOV facility in the United States. The HOV lanes were opened to buses in 1969 and then to vanpools and carpools in late 1973. Changes have been made in both the vehicle occupancy requirements and the hours of operation over the years, and the lanes have been extended along I-95. Metrorail (rapid transit) and Virginia Railway Express (VRE commuter rail) have been added in the corridor. The new rail services have been accompanied by reductions in HOV lanes bus service, primarily attributable to bus route reorganization into rail feeders. Actions. In 1969, demonstration of a bus-only lane was initiated as part of the reconstruction of Shirley Highway into the present I-395. Demonstration program support was provided for express bus service expansion. A permanent 11 mile two-lane, barrier separated HOV facility located in the center median of I-395 was completed between 1969 and 1973. Only buses were allowed to use the facility until December 1973, when the lanes were opened to vanpools and carpools with 4 or more persons (4). In January 1989, the vehicle occupancy requirement was 7 These percentages sum to more than 100 percent because some survey respondents selected more than one carpool partner type. 2-103

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lowered to 3 or more persons (3), and in 1992 interim concurrent flow HOV lanes were opened on I-95 to the south. These interim lanes were replaced by exclusive facilities during the mid- 1990s. Currently, 27 miles of exclusive 2-lane HOV facility are in operation on I-95/I-395 from Dumfries in Prince William County to the District of Columbia, terminating at 14th Street. The lanes operate in the peak direction of traffic flow, with the HOV restriction applying inbound in the morning from 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM and outbound in the afternoon from 3:30 PM to 6:00 PM. They are open to general traffic at other times. Direct access ramps are provided at major park- and-ride lots and other locations. Analysis. A number of studies have been conducted on the Shirley Highway HOV lanes over the years. These included evaluation of the initial Express-Bus-on-Freeway Demonstration, congres- sionally mandated studies, and ongoing monitoring efforts by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments and the Virginia Department of Transportation. The initial evaluation examined mode share and auto occupancy impacts over a 4-mile wide corridor with vehicle, auto occupancy, and bus passenger screenline counts. Results. Table 2-33 highlights general information on the use of the Shirley Highway HOV lanes over time. Table 2-5 and the accompanying discussion earlier in this chapter under "Traveler Response by Type of HOV Application"--"Response to Exclusive Freeway HOV Lanes" compared auto occupancy impacts across the full corridor with those on the freeway itself. Table 2-33 Utilization of the Northern VirginiaWashington, DC, Shirley Highway (I-395) HOV Lanes -- Inbound AM Peak Hour 1969 a 1973 a 1988 b 1989 c 1997 c,d Number of HOV / GP Lanes 1/2 2/4 2/4 2/4 2/4 HOV Lanes Vehicle Volumes Buses 39 279 150 161 118 Vanpools and Carpools 0 0 1,890 2,314 2,654 Total HOV Vehicles 39 279 2,040 2,475 2,772 HOV Lanes Passenger Volumes Bus Passengers 1,920 11,340 5,320 5,621 3,085 Carpool/Vanpool Passengers 0 0 8,880 9,483 8,212 Total HOV Passengers 1,920 11,340 14,200 15,104 11,297 HOV Lanes AVO Bus AVO 49.2 40.6 35.5 34.9 26.1 Vanpool and Carpool AVO -- -- 4.3 4.1 3.1 Total HOV AVO 49.2 40.6 6.9 6.1 4.1 Notes: -- - Information not applicable. a Bus-only operation. b Open to buses, vanpools, and 4 person carpools (4+). c Open to buses, vanpools, and 3 person carpools (3+). d A spring of 2004 total peak-hour HOV lanes passenger count of 11,328 suggests little overall change between 1997 and 2004. Sources: Turnbull (1992a and b), McQueen et al. (1975), Metropolitan Washington COG (1991, 1998, and 2005), Arnold (1987). 2-104

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The Shirley Highway Express-Bus-on-Freeway Demonstration project more than doubled the bus service on the facility. At the end of the demonstration, buses and carpools were saving 19 minutes over mixed traffic during the AM peak period. Bus reliability improved from 33 percent on-time arrival downtown to 92 percent on-time arrival. Carpools and vanpools also gained comparable improvements in travel time reliability. In 1998, travelers making use of the full 27 miles of HOV lanes on I-95 and I-395 saved from 34 to 39 minutes during the AM peak hour. The time savings mea- sured in the 2005 AM peak period was 37 minutes. Thirty-nine AM peak-hour buses, carrying some 1,920 passengers, operated on the Shirley Highway HOV during the first year. By 1973, the last year of bus-only operation, some 279 buses, carrying 11,340 passengers, used the facility during the AM peak hour. The bus AVO on the facility during the AM peak hour in this period averaged between 40 and 49. The corridor-wide 6:30 AM to 9:00 AM inbound mode share went from 21 percent transit in the first full year (1970) to 29 percent in both 1972 and 1973. Vehicle and person volumes increased when the lanes were opened to vanpools and carpools in late 1973. Transit mode share concurrently increased to 31 percent, but this may have been influenced by the peak of the 1973-74 fuel shortage. Of HOV facility bus riders in 1974, only 19 per- cent had no car or did not drive, compared to 30 percent for other bus riders in the corridor. Shortly after the lanes were open to 4 carpools in 1973, the average carpool occupancy on the HOV lanes during the 2-1/2 hour AM peak period was 4.5. The overall facility auto occupancy during the AM peak period changed from 1.35 to 1.61 after 4 carpools were allowed to use the lane, and the corridor-wide auto occupancy rate changed from 1.32 to 1.45. Prior travel modes of Shirley Highway HOV facility users at the time are shown in Table 2-34, in both the detail provided by survey Table 2-34 Shirley Highway HOV Facility User Prior Mode Percentages in 1974 HOV HOV HOV HOV HOV Facility Facility Facility Facility Facility Surveyed Prior "Choice" a Carpool Carpool Consolidated Bus Riders Carpoolers Modes Bus Riders Drivers Passengers Prior Modes b (All) (All) Did Not Make Present Trip c: Auto Driver 41% 39% Used Auto 30% 22% 18% Auto Passenger 12 30 Used Bus 23 9 9 Bus Rider 38 25 Other 4 1 2 Other 9 6 Drove Alone 19 23 16 Carpooled: Alternating Driver 3 23 20 Other Driver 5 3 2 Passenger 3 4 4 Bus Rider 8 12 24 Other 5 3 5 a Notes: Riders who had an automobile available for their work trip. b For the same trip, or a prior comparable trip when residence or workplace had changed. c The prior condition involved a different residence or workplace; modes shown are for the comparable prior trip. Sources: Surveyed Prior Modes -- McQueen et al. (1975), Consolidated Prior Modes -- Pratt, Pedersen and Mather (1977). 2-105

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responses and in consolidated format. Development of the consolidated estimates involved making certain assumptions about prior modes of non-choice bus riders, auto occupancy, and the number of members in alternating driver carpools. More . . . In the 1980s and 1990s, there were a series of reductions in bus usage of the HOV lanes caused by the rail transit service expansion. In 1988, approximately 150 buses carrying 5,320 pas- sengers were using the HOV lanes during the AM peak hour, along with 1,890 carpools and van- pools carrying 8,880 people, for a total of 14,200 inbound persons. There were slight increases in 1989, even as the 4 carpool occupancy requirement was relaxed to allow 3 carpools. By the late 1990s the usage pattern still evident in 2004 was established. Data from 1997 and 2004 show an AM peak-hour total of 11,300 person trips served. In addition, over 6,000 peak-direction passengers rode Metrorail or VRE commuter rail services during the 1997 AM peak hour in the same urban sector. On the HOV lanes, the 1997 AM and PM peak-hour carpool and vanpool AVOs were 3.1 and 3.4, respectively. The corresponding AVOs for the GP lanes were 1.14 and 1.18. The AM peak-hour car- pool, vanpool and bus AVO for the HOV lanes was 4.1. During that hour, the person movement per lane for the Shirley Highway HOV lanes was about 5,600, compared to 2,000 for the GP lanes. A screenline license plate matching survey, conducted in 1998, provides person-movement infor- mation for separate origin and destination areas along the present-day I-95/I-395 HOV facility. The low occupancy vehicle (LOV) and HOV (3 carpool and vanpool) I-95/I-395 vehicle trips thus iden- tified have been expanded to person trips using survey-based vehicle occupancy factors and melded with transit ridership information to approximate total AM peak one hour northbound/inbound person movement in a tightly defined I-95/I-395 corridor. The results are shown in Table 2-35. Of the 38,210 person trips thus identified, 63 percent are in LOVs, 23 percent are in 3 carpools and vanpools, and 7 percent each are in buses or on rail transit. Note, however, the mode share dif- ferences exhibited by individual AM peak-hour travel markets, particularly for trips destined to the core area of Northern Virginia (Crystal City and the Pentagon in Arlington) and downtown Washington, DC. The most extreme divergence from the average modal distribution in the HOV lanes corridor is for persons traveling from outside the Capital Beltway (I-495) to the core area. There are 10,975 trips in this long-distance category, 29 percent of the total. Of these, just 19 per- cent are in LOVs, 51 percent are in qualifying carpools and vanpools, 6 percent are in buses, and 24 percent are on rail transit. Looking only at highway users in this category, two-thirds are in car- pools and vanpools and 7 percent are in buses, leaving only a quarter in LOVs. At the other extreme, of trips from outside the Beltway to the Beltway or local points short of the core area, 90 percent are in LOVs, 9 percent are in 3 carpools and vanpools, almost none use buses, and 1 percent are on rail transit. Examining the 38,210 AM peak-hour inbound persons moving the length of the HOV lanes in the narrowly defined I-95/I-395 corridor from the perspective of trip orientation, 58 percent are des- tined to the Crystal City, Pentagon, and downtown DC central core area. Moving beyond this over- all average, however, further calculations based on the data in Table 2-35 demonstrate that 84 percent of 3 carpool and vanpool occupants, practically all of the bus riders, and 95 percent of rail transit riders are headed for the central core area, as compared to a comparatively low 39 per- cent of the peak-hour inbound LOV person movement. Spring of 2004 I-395 HOV lanes vehicle counts show no significant change since 1997, still coming in at 11,300 for AM peak-hour total person volume. Corresponding 2004 person volume on the GP lanes has decreased very slightly to 8,800 or an AM peak-hour person movement of 2,200 per lane. AM peak-hour productivity per HOV lane exceeds 2-1/2 times GP lane productivity in terms of person movement. The PM peak-hour 2004 productivity ratio favors the HOV lanes even more. 2-106

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Table 2-35 Northern Virginia I-95/I-395 AM Peak One Hour Person Movements Inbound toward Washington, DC To Local Destinations To Beltway or Non-core To the North Arlington Outside the Beltway Inside Beltway and DC Core Area Totals to All Destinations Origin Area Mode Number Mode Share Number Mode Share Number Mode Share Number Mode Share From outside LOV 5,925 87% 8,675 92% 2,100 19% 16,700 62% the Capital HOV 850 12% 550 6% 5,600 51% 7,000 26% Beltway Bus 10 >1% 0 0% 605 6% 615 2% (I-495) Rail 0 0% 150 2% 2,670 24% 2,820 10% Total 6,785 100% 9,375 100% 10,975 100% 27,135 100% Percent of grand total 18% 24% 29% 71% From Beltway LOV -- -- -- -- 7,225 65% 7,225 65% or inside HOV -- -- -- -- 1,850 17% 1,850 17% the Beltway Bus -- -- -- -- 2,000 18% 2,000 18% Rail -- -- -- -- 0 0% 0 0% Total -- -- -- -- 11,075 100% 11,075 100% Percent of grand total -- -- 29% 29% Totals LOV 5,925 87% 8,675 92% 9,325 42% 23,925 63% from all HOV 850 12% 550 6% 7,450 34% 8,850 23% origins Bus 10 >1% 0 0% 2,605 12% 2,615 7% Rail 0 0% 150 2% 2,670 12% 2,820 7% Total 6,785 100% 9,375 100% 22,050 100% 38,210 100% Percent of grand total 18% 24% 58% 100% Notes: Corridor person movement is trips crossing screenlines on I-95/I-395 HOV or GP lanes themselves plus rail transit trips in the same specific travel markets. The low occupancy vehicle (LOV) mode includes SOVs and 2+ carpools. Bus riders are identified separately from HOV. HOV consists of 3+ carpools and vanpools. Rail riders are comprised of passengers using Metrorail and Virginia Railway Express (VRE) commuter rail, but only between the equivalent service areas. Source: BMI et al. (1999b) with elaboration by Handbook authors.

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Despite this maintenance of high HOV lanes productivity and the overall stability between 1997 and 2004, AM peak-period auto occupancy on the HOV lanes (excluding vanpools) showed a slight decrease from 2.7 to 2.5 persons per auto. This is thought to result in part from allowing single- occupant hybrid vehicles to use Virginia HOV lanes. More information on this hybrid vehicle exemption and discussion of impacts is found under "Traveler Response by Type of HOV Application"--"Response to HOV Facility Exempt Vehicle and Value Pricing Programs"-- "Environmentally Friendly Vehicle Exemption Programs." Sources. McQueen, J. T., Levinsohn, D. M., Waksman, R., and Miller, G. K., The Shirley Highway Express-Bus-on-Freeway Demonstration Project: Final Report. U. S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (1975). Pratt, R. H., Pedersen, N. J., and Mather, J. J., Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes - A Handbook for Transportation Planners [first edition]. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (February, 1977). Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, "MetroCore Cordon Count, Total Person Travel on HOV Shirley Highway." Washington, DC (1991). Arnold, E. D., Jr., Changes in Travel in the Shirley Highway Corridor 1983--1986. Virginia Transportation Council, Richmond, VA (1987). Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, "1997 Performance of Regional High- Occupancy Vehicle Facilities on Interstate Highways in the Washington Region--An Analysis of Person and Vehicle Volumes and Vehicle Travel Times." Washington, DC (1998). Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, "2004 Performance of Regional High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities on Freeways in the Washington Region." Draft (July 22, 2005). BMI, T. Y. Lin International, Travesky & Associates, Ltd., SG Associates, Inc., Gallop Corporation, MCV Associates, Inc., "I-95/I-395 HOV Restriction Study." Volume II: Technical Supplement. Prepared for Virginia Department of Transportation (February, 1999b). Minneapolis I-394 HOV Facilities Situation. I-394 is located on the west side of the Minneapolis-St. Paul region, connecting down- town Minneapolis with western suburbs. The corridor was served by Trunk Highway (TH) 12, a 4-lane arterial with numerous access points and signalized intersections. It was designated part of the Interstate system in the 1960s, but planning and construction took three decades as a result of neighborhood and environmental concerns. The ultimate design incorporated a number of HOV elements, partially in response to these concerns. Actions. I-394 is 11 miles in length. The project as constructed included two GP lanes in each direc- tion, 3 miles of two-lane, reversible, barrier separated HOV lanes, 8 miles of concurrent flow HOV lanes, park-and-ride lots, new and expanded bus service, and three parking garages on the edge of downtown Minneapolis. As of 2005, I-394 carpools paid a discount monthly contract rate for parking in the I-394 garages of $20, while the rate for SOVs was $120. The HOV lanes operate in the peak periods, in the peak direction of travel, with a 2 vehicle occupancy requirement. I-394 was built on the existing TH 12 right-of-way. An interim HOV lane on TH 12, referred to as the Sane Lane, was operated from 1985 to 1991 to help manage traffic during construction and to intro- duce the concept of HOV lanes to the traveling public. After some 14 years of conventional full- scale I-394 HOV operations, tolled SOVs have been allowed onto the HOV lanes, expanding their function to that of HOT lanes. Analysis. MnDOT sponsored an assessment of the Sane Lane and the final I-394 HOV system. This evaluation documented conditions before construction of I-394 started, during operation of the interim HOV lane, and after the opening of the full system. The study included the collection and analysis of a variety of traffic and transit data, periodic surveys of HOV lane users and commuters 2-108

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in the corridor, and monitored other conditions in the corridor. The department has continued to monitor traffic and vehicle occupancy data on the facility and in the parking garages, and pub- lishes quarterly status reports. Assessment of effects of and public reaction to HOT lanes opera- tion is in progress. External events are serving to complicate HOT lane impact analysis, including a transit strike prior to inauguration. Other events have included a June 2005 transit fare increase and the summer gasoline price spike. Additional confounding circumstances include a soft down- town office rental market and a regionwide upward trend in express bus transit ridership. Results. Travel time savings of approximately 8 to 10 minutes were realized during operation of the interim HOV lane. Survey findings indicated that carpoolers perceived a travel time savings of 10 minutes and bus riders a savings of 15 minutes. In 1992, with I-394 completion, HOVs using the full 11 miles of HOV lanes in the AM peak hour saved approximately 5 minutes over travelers in the GP lanes. Subsequently, capacity enhancements caused travel times in the GP lanes to decrease, leaving travel time savings of approximately 2 minutes for HOVs. These time savings data are only for the mainline HOV and freeway lanes, and do not include access time. HOVs may realize additional travel time savings of 1 to 8 minutes from use of the HOV bypass lanes at entrance ramps. More time savings may also be attained through direct access into the downtown Minneapolis parking garages. Analyses of the interim HOV lane and full HOV system indicate that commuters changed their travel habits to take advantage of the travel time savings, the improved travel time reliability, and the lower carpool parking rates offered by the I-394 HOV system. With the introduction of the Sane Lane, the percentage of peak-period travelers driving alone dropped from 62 percent to 49 percent. The rate of ridesharing increased from 20 to 33 percent. This increase in ridesharing did not come at the expense of transit, however, with the transit share remaining at about 18 percent. The improved travel conditions brought about by modification of TH 12 into I-394 with its HOV lanes attracted travelers from parallel roadways to the north and south, contributing to an increase in the total number of people using the highway of 35 percent, while the increase in total vehicle trips was only 23 percent. Diversion was not the only source of carpool volume increases, however. A 1987 sur- vey of carpools using the interim HOV lane indicated that 38 percent had previously driven alone. Table 2-36 picks up during the interim operation phase and focuses on AM peak one hour inbound vehicle and person volumes. It provides data for the interim Sane Lane operation and at five points since the complete system was opened, including the first full quarter of HOT lanes operation. The Sane Lane data shown, however, were collected farther from downtown than the other Table 2-36 volumes, such that absolute comparisons within Table 2-36 between 1989 and 1992 volumes are not supported. Initial segments of the interim HOV lane were open in November 1985. These included a 3-mile and a 1-mile segment in the middle of TH 12. The exact location of the interim lane changed dur- ing the 5 year period in response to the needs of construction activities. The AM peak-hour vehi- cle volumes during the interim operation averaged between 405 and 554 at Turners Crossroads, west of major highway TH 100, carrying some 1,400 persons. Vehicle and person volumes increased in response to the 1992 I-394 project completion, as indicated above. They continued to grow beyond 1992, as Table 2-36 illustrates. In the first quarter of 1998, the AM peak one hour level of use was 1,674 vehicles carrying 5,175 people as measured east of TH 100, between that highway and downtown Minneapolis. By the first quarter of 2005, however, HOV facility usage had declined to just below 1994 levels. This decline occurred despite or perhaps because of continued growth in GP lane volumes, aided by addition in the mid-1990s of one more GP lane in each direction between TH 100 and downtown, parallel to the reversible HOV lanes. 2-109

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Table 2-36 Utilization of Minneapolis I-394 -- Eastbound AM Peak Hour Interim HOT Lane a Completed I-394 HOV Facility b Lane 1989 1992 1994 1998 2005 2005 Number of HOV/GP Lanes 1/2 2/2 2/2 2/3 2/3 2/3 HOV/HOT Lanes Vehicle Volumes Bus 13 50 97 c 56 73 80 Carpool/Vanpool/HOT-Lane-Tolled 430 1,089 1,499 1,618 1,388 1,697 d Total 443 1,139 1,596 1,674 1,461 1,777 HOV/HOT Lanes Person Volumes Bus 455 1,492 2,337 1,834 2,184 2,193 Carpool/Vanpool/HOT-Lane-Tolled 942 2,210 3,057 3,341 2,801 2,928 e Total 1,397 3,702 5,394 5,175 4,985 5,121 GP Lanes Vehicle Volume 1,956 3,531 5,083 5,267 5,613 5,264 GP Lanes Person Volume 2,328 3,674 5,152 5,324 5,674 5,321 SOV/Carpool/Vanpool/Bus AVO HOV/HOT Lanes 3.15 3.25 3.38 3.09 3.41 2.88 GP Lanes 1.19 1.04 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 Freeway Overall (HOV + GP lanes) 1.55 1.58 1.58 1.51 1.51 1.48 SOV/Car/Vanpool AVO, Fwy. Overall 1.37 1.27 1.25 1.26 1.21 1.18 Park-and-Ride Lots Number of Spaces 300 936 1,021 n/a n/a n/a Number of Parked Cars 225 478 677 n/a n/a n/a Percent Occupancy 75% 51% 66% n/a n/a n/a Downtown Parking Garages Number of Spaces -- -- 5,923 n/a 6,755 6,755 I-394 HOV Monthly Contracts -- -- 2,065 2,325 1,172 1,134 Percent of I-394 HOV Contracts -- -- 35% n/a 17% 17% Notes: n/a Information not available; -- - Information not applicable. Person volumes and AVOs from at least 1998-on are estimated assuming an average carpool/vanpool occupancy of 2.1 and an HOV facility violator or tolled vehicle occupancy of 1.0. HOV violators are included in with HOV facility carpools. a The interim HOV lane opened in November 1985. Volumes are from Turners Crossroads, a lower volume location further from downtown than the 1992-2005 observations. b The final HOV lanes (2-lane reversible section and concurrent flow lanes) were open in the spring of 1992. Data are from 2-lane section and GP lanes in vicinity of or at Penn Ave. c Includes 70 transit buses and 27 "Other buses." "Other Buses" were not identified among HOV lane users in the reported counts for other years. d 1,119 carpool/vanpool vehicles, 476 tolled (MnPASS) vehicles, 102 violators (SOV). e 2,350 carpool/vanpool occupants, 476 tolled (MnPASS) drivers, 102 violators (SOV). Sources: Turnbull and Hanks (1990), SRF, Inc. (1995), Minnesota DOT (1998a, 2005a and 2005b), with adjustments and elaboration by Handbook authors. 2-110

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The use of all complementary bus and HOV services increased with opening of the full HOV sys- tem. The number of spaces and usage levels at park-and-ride lots tripled from the before condi- tion. Downtown carpool parking space use increased 13 percent in their first 4 years of availability. Bus services and ridership levels increased substantially as the facility opened, but the off-high- way transit centers proved hard to serve in the timed-transfer mode envisioned; this and general service retrenchment led to some reductions. More recently the bus service decline has been reversed, while the I-394 downtown parking garages have turned to requiring 2 occupancy upon entry to qualify for the HOV discount. That requirement and office rental vacancies appear to explain most of the sharp decline in monthly HOV parking contracts. The AM peak-hour auto, vanpool, and bus AVO for the overall TH 12 highway prior to the open- ing of the Sane Lane was 1.42. During the interim operation phase, the carpool, vanpool, and bus AVO for the Sane Lane was 3.15, while the AVO for the GP travel lanes was 1.19, producing an over- all AVO for the highway under construction of 1.55. By 1994, with the full I-394 freeway and HOV facility in place since 1992, the AM peak-hour carpool, vanpool, and bus AVO for HOV lanes was 3.28. AVO for the GP lanes was 1.01. This equated to an average auto, vanpool, and bus AVO for the full facility overall of 1.58. Since then, with HOV lane AVO ups and downs tied to bus service and use, there has been an overall slight downward trend in AVO. The 2005 overall highway pre- and-post-HOT-lane-operation AVOs, 1.51 and 1.48, respectively, are nonetheless still above the pre-HOV 1.42 AVO even in the face of national auto occupancy declines. Full AVO detail is pro- vided in Table 2-36. More . . . Despite relatively high public satisfaction levels with the I-394 HOV lanes, there has been concern about underutilization of their vehicular capacity. Technical findings on this issue have been presented in the "Impacts on Energy, Air Quality, and Environmental Factors"--"Negative Evaluation Results" subsection and the "Costs, Revenues, and Benefits" subsection, both within the "Related Information and Impacts" section. A solution to improve efficiency without sacrific- ing maintenance of free-flow speeds for bus transit and carpools was sought. On May 16, 2005, "MnPASS" tolled vehicles were allowed onto the I-394 HOV lanes, creating the first HOT lanes facility outside of California and Texas. Teething problems on the unique concur- rent flow HOT lanes segment, and their resolution, are described in the "Terminations of HOV Projects"--"HOT Lane Situations" subsection in the "Related Information and Impacts" section. The installation features differential pricing by segment, dynamic pricing according to traffic flow, electronic toll collection employing transponders, and electronically assisted enforcement. A toll applies to the reversible lanes section any time it is open, but tolls now apply to the concurrent flow segment only in peak periods in the peak direction. About 4,000 transponders were leased before HOT lane functioning began. Following steady growth, 9,200 were leased as of January 2006. Weekly toll-paying trips increased from 9,000 to 20,000 during the initial 8 month span. Weekly revenues are up from $6,000 to $19,000 and are expected to cover operating costs in 2006. Violation rates on most I-394 HOV segments have been headed downward since 2002 and HOT lane functioning does not appear to have affected the trend. Peak-hour HOV/HOT lane vehicle throughput in the reversible section is up 27 percent inbound in the morning and 14 percent outbound in the afternoon. On the eastbound concurrent flow lane section, an inbound vehicle throughput increase of 16 percent is counterbalanced by a 3 to 9 percent decrease in the PM westbound. Corridor-wide throughput changes are small and hard to gauge lacking a full year's experience. Early before-and-after effects on AM peak-hour carpooling are illustrated by comparison between the last two columns of Table 2-36, which cover the first and third quarters of 2005. With introduction of 2-111

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476 tolled peak-hour vehicles in the third quarter, the total HOV/HOT lanes volume is up by 316 vehi- cles but carpool vehicles (including violators) are down by 167. Whether this is just a slightly larger "blip" than occurred on the I-5 HOV/HOT lanes in San Diego, to be followed by further growth in carpool use, or a longer-lasting downturn remains to be seen. In any case, there are two qualifying car- pools for every tolled SOV. Morning peak-hour transit ridership held steady across the change, and on an AM plus PM peak periods basis, is actually up in the third quarter over a year previous by 13 to 14 percent. Park-and-Ride capacity limitations are the primary transit ridership constraint in the corridor at present. Sources. SRF, Inc., "I-394 Interim HOV Lane: A Case Study. " Wayzata, MN (1987). SRF, Inc., "I-394 HOV Lane Case Study: Final Report." Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN (1995). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-394 HOV Report 1998 - 1st Quarter January-March." St. Paul, MN (1998a). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-394 HOV Report 2005-1st Quarter January-March." St. Paul, MN (2005a). Minnesota Department of Transportation, "I-394 HOV Report including MnPASS Data 2005-3rd Quarter July-September." St. Paul, MN (2005b). Buckeye, K. R., "1-394 MnPASS: Performance Update." Presentation with visuals to the TRB Managed Lanes Joint Subcommittee AHB35(1), Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC (January 23, 2006). Kozlak, C., and Thompson, N., Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Transportation, respectively, St. Paul, MN. Email and attachments to the Handbook authors (February 27-28, 2006). Observations by the Handbook authors. Seattle I-5 North HOV Lanes Situation. The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), in response to growing Seattle area freeway traffic congestion, has implemented and continues to develop a regional sys- tem of HOV lanes and supporting components in cooperation with local transit systems and other stakeholders. I-5 is the major north-south freeway through Seattle proper. It is heavily used by commuters, visitors, and truckers. The concurrent flow HOV lanes on I-5 North represent one ele- ment of the HOV system in the region and of I-5 North itself. Actions. The I-5 North concurrent flow HOV lanes are located to the north of the University of Washington, starting approximately 7 miles north of downtown Seattle. As implemented in 1983, the northbound HOV lane was 6.2 miles in length, and the southbound lane was 7.7 miles long. At their south ends, these concurrent flow HOV lanes tie into reversible express GP freeway lanes (that is, express lanes open to mixed traffic), which in turn have HOV lane connections into the Seattle CBD via exclusive reversible HOV ramps. The concurrent flow lanes were opened in 1983 to buses, vanpools, and carpools with 3 or more people (3), well after the reversible lanes and ramps to the south were in place. In 1991, the vehi- cle occupancy requirement was changed to 2. Other HOV elements in the corridor include park- and-ride lots, bus service, and ramp meter bypass lanes. As of the 1990s, 21 freeway entrance ramps were metered in this segment of I-5 North, with HOV bypass lanes at 11. Thirteen park-and- ride lots were in operation in the corridor. Community Transit operates the suburban bus service using the HOV lanes. Routes are oriented from Snohomish County neighborhood areas, park-and- ride lots, and two Washington State Ferry connections, and provide service to and from downtown Seattle, the University of Washington, and North Seattle Community College. Analysis. The first 10 years of I-5 HOV lane operation encompassed both introduction of the lanes and most major changes to their operation. Those years are focused on utilizing two key studies 2-112

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undertaken or sponsored by WSDOT. One is an evaluation covering the first 2 years of I-5 North HOV lane operation. The other is an assessment of the 1991 change in the occupancy level from 3 to 2. In addition, WSDOT maintains an ongoing monitoring program of HOV facilities in the Seattle area, and this is drawn from as well. Results. Historical trends in vehicle volumes, utilization levels, and AVO are highlighted in Table 2-37. Approximately 280 vehicles used the HOV lanes during the AM peak hour in the first weeks of operation in 1983. Because there was very little bus service in the corridor at this time, most of these vehicles were 3 person carpools, with a few vanpools. After 3 months, the number of AM peak-hour vehicles had increased to 410, and by 20 months, 460 vehicles were using the lanes. These continued to be primarily 3 carpools and a few vanpools. Bus service was increased significantly in the corridor in the mid 1980s. By 1985 and 1989, the number of carpools and van- pools ranged from 385 to 466 and the number of buses from 35 to 64. The HOV lane carpool and vanpool AVO during this period ranged between 3.0 and 3.2, while the carpool, vanpool, and bus AVO averaged 6.5 to 7.6. The AVO for the GP lanes was 1.20 to 1.23. The AM peak-period vehicle volumes doubled in 1991 when the occupancy requirement was low- ered from 3 to 2. Morning peak-hour vehicle volumes increased to between 1,200 and 1,400 and person volumes reached over 5,600. While bus occupancy levels remained constant, the carpool and vanpool AVO dropped to 2.6 and the carpool, vanpool, and bus AVO declined to 4.6. More . . . In the 1990s, approximately 10,000 daily riders were carried to downtown Seattle and the University of Washington on Community Transit buses using the I-5 North HOV lane, with 2,605 Table 2-37 Utilization of the Seattle I-5 HOV Lanes over First 10 YearsAM Peak Hour Opening 3 20 1983 a Months a Months a 1985 a 1989 a 1991 b Number of HOV/GP Lanes 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 HOV Lane Vehicle Volumes Buses n/a n/a n/a 35 64 64 Carpools/Vanpools n/a n/a n/a 385 466 1,169 Total Vehicles 280 410 460 420 530 1,233 HOV Lane Passengers/Occupants Buses n/a n/a n/a 1,480 2,605 2,605 Carpools/Vanpools n/a n/a n/a 1,250 1,398 3,039 Total Passengers n/a n/a n/a 2,730 4,003 5,644 HOV Lane AVO Bus AVO n/a n/a n/a 42 41 41 Carpool/Vanpool AVO n/a n/a n/a 3.2 3.0 2.6 Overall HOV Lane AVO n/a n/a n/a 6.5 7.6 4.6 GP Lane AVO n/a n/a n/a 1.20 1.23 n/a Notes: n/a Information not available. a A vehicle occupancy requirement of 3+ was used from 1983 to 1991. b The vehicle-occupancy requirement was lowered to 2+ in 1991. Sources: Institute of Transportation Engineers (1988), Turnbull and Hanks (1990), Turnbull (1992a and b). 2-113

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riders in the AM peak hour. The I-5 facility then carried the second largest number of bus riders in the AM peak hour of U.S. concurrent flow HOV lanes, and recorded higher bus passenger volumes than some of the exclusive freeway HOV lanes. Ridership on the Community Transit system grew signif- icantly from 1986 to 1991. In 1986, the daily average ridership on the commuter routes to downtown Seattle was approximately 3,400. By 1990, this figure had increased to some 7,400. In 1991, ridership leveled off slightly, at least partly in response to the fact that no significant service improvements or expansions were made, with many runs at capacity leaving little room for additional riders. Sources. Washington State Department of Transportation, "I-5 HOV Lanes: 20-Month Update." Olympia, WA (1985). Institute of Transportation Engineers, "The Effectiveness of High- Occupancy Vehicle Facilities." Washington, DC (1988). Turnbull, K. F., and Hanks, J. W., Jr., A Description of High Occupancy Vehicle Facilities in North America. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX (July 1990). Turnbull, K. F., An Assessment of High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Facilities in North America: Executive Report. Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (August, 1992a). Ulberg, C., et al., I-5 North High-Occupancy Vehicle Lane 2 Occupancy Requirement Demonstration Evaluation. Washington State Transportation Center, Seattle, WA (1992). Los Angeles County HOV System Evaluation Situation. The effectiveness of California's HOV lanes was being questioned statewide, and also locally in Los Angeles County, at the close of the 20th Century. The California Legislative Analyst Office (LAO) published a report that sought to determine if California's HOV lanes were meeting their intended goals, but in the end focused on inadequacies of existing HOV lane performance evaluation. Given this background, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) established an auditing function, the "HOV Performance Program," to provide data, analyses, and recommendations in support of actions--including possible operational pol- icy changes and decisions about future investments--to increase the productivity and effective- ness of Los Angeles County's existing and future HOV lanes. Actions. Los Angeles County opened freeway HOV lanes in 13 corridors in the 1990s. Together with the pre-existing San Bernardino (I-10) Transitway (El Monte Busway), this resulted in 14 HOV cor- ridors with a total of 383 HOV lane miles. The expansion made the system "the largest operating HOV system in the nation" even as further growth was being planned. The system includes com- muter park-and-ride lots, ramp meter bypass lanes, and other related HOV facilities. With the exception of the El Monte Busway (see "Traveler Response by Type of HOV Application"-- "Response to Exclusive Freeway HOV Lanes"--"San Bernardino Transitway [El Monte Busway]"), all of the HOV lanes are open to HOV 2 carpools at all times. The I-10 and Harbor (I-110) Freeway Transitways are partially or fully exclusive HOV facilities. The other 12 HOV installations are con- current flow lanes. Analysis. MTA initiated their HOV Performance Program with preparation of an evaluation report utilizing year 2000 data, much of it collected specifically for the analysis process. A total of 16 study routes or segments served by HOV lanes were examined along with 2 routes without HOV picked to serve as study control routes. Los Angeles is of course a highly multi-nucleated city, but in terms of the historic center only 2 of the studied HOV corridors are close-in radials, while 3 of the study routes and both of the control routes are outlying radial segments. A Project Advisory Team of stakeholders, a Project Management Team, staff workshops, and a Project Peer Review group were used to aid in developing HOV facility objectives and Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs). Transportation supply, demand, operations, and accident data along with market research results 2-114

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were used in applying the MOEs. The 5 HOV lane objectives and the primary measures of effec- tiveness for each were: 1. Manage Travel Demand by Increasing the Person Movement Capacity in Congested Freeway Corridors. A. Average Vehicle Occupancy (AVO) B. Person Trips C. Percent of Person Trips vs. Vehicle Trips D. Percent of Carpools/Vanpools and HOV Lane Vehicles E. Buses and Bus Riders 2. Encourage carpooling, vanpooling, and bus use by providing travel and mobility options. A. Transit Operators Attitudes B. Ridesharing Activities C. System Connections 3. Provide travel time savings and trip reliability to travelers using the HOV facilities. A. Travel Time Savings B. Speed 4. Provide air quality benefits. A. HOV Corridor Vehicle Emissions B. HOV Lane Vehicle Emissions 5. Promote a cost-effective transportation system. A. Transit Operations B. Benefit-Cost C. Accidents D. Public Perceptions--Adequate Use E. Public Perceptions--Good Improvement F. Violation Rates Results. A consolidated presentation of evaluation results is presented in Table 2-38. Overall, the Los Angeles County HOV system was shown to perform well on most of the efficiency, mobility, operational, and benefit measures. The Los Angeles County system was found to do particularly well on measures based on exami- nation of trends, especially where compared to national trends, and on "after" versus "before" HOV performance. Several of the comparisons with the small number of control routes (two) were unfavorable. The air quality assessments were essentially inconclusive from a corridor impact per- spective. Best performing HOV facilities were the 2 close-in radial facilities--both semi-exclusive or exclusive Transitways--on the I-10 San Bernardino and I-110 Harbor Freeways; outlying radial segments, CA 14 and CA 60; and circumferential facilities passing through heavily industrial- ized/commercialized southern and western communities, I-105 and I-405. More . . . Four of the MOEs were dealt with in a largely qualitative manner and are not included in Table 38. Data insufficiencies prevented quantitative investigation of MOE 2A Transit Operators Attitudes and MOE 5A Transit Operations. Both public and private transportation agencies report 2-115

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Table 2-38 Los Angeles County HOV Study Route Evaluation Results Summary Percentage of Study Segments Meeting Threshold (or Data Value) MOE Effectiveness Thresholds / Data AM a PM a 1A All-lanes AVO higher with HOV lane than for control routes without HOV 100% 84% All-lanes AVO growth higher with HOV lane than AVO trend for controls 96% 79% Before HOV all-lanes AVO aggregated across all HOV 2+ study routes 1.15 1.23 After HOV all-lanes AVO aggregated across all HOV 2+ study routes 1.24 1.28 1B All-lanes person trips per lane (PTPL) higher with HOV lane than for controls 59% 25% All-lanes PTPL growth higher with HOV lane than PTPL trend for controls 95% 86% HOV lane PTPL greater than PTPL of the GP lanes 67% 72% Grand total daily person trips in HOV lanes (both directions summed) 737,700 1C Current HOV lane AVO higher than GP lanes AVO 100% 100% Percent of person trips on HOV lane higher than pct. of lanes designated HOV 69% 63% 1D Percent of carpool/vanpool vehicles higher with HOV lane than for controls 100% 72% Percent pool vehicle growth higher with HOV lane than trend for controls 100% 90% Peak-hour vehicles in HOV lane 800/hour (600/hour for lanes < 3 years old) b 94% Peak-hour vehicles in HOV lane < 1,650/hour (overload threshold) b 100% Number of daily bus vehicle trips higher with HOV lane than for controls b 20% Number of daily bus passenger trips higher with HOV lane than for controls b 27% 2B L. A. County 1990-2000 drive alone share increase versus the national increase c +0.3%/+2.5% L. A. County 1990-2000 carpool share decline versus the national decline c -0.4%/-1.2% L. A. County 1990-2000 transit share increase versus the national decline c +0.1%/-0.6% 2C HOV study route park-and-ride lot utilization of spaces (17,424 spaces total) 53% HOV study route park-and-ride lots at capacity (66 lots total) 15% Carpool system gaps / Carpool system direct connections (in L. A. County) d 10 / 9 3A Total minutes saved relative to GP lanes (average of 16 routes/segments) 7.1 5.3 Minutes saved per mile relative to GP lanes (average of 16 segments) 0.70 0.45 Meets or exceeds time savings threshold of 0.5 minutes/mile b 62% 3B Average HOV lane travel speed congestion threshold (35 miles per hour) 88% 88% 4A All-lanes combined vehicle emission rate with HOV lane rate for controls 12% 4B Combined vehicle emission rate in HOV lane rate in GP lanes 88% 100% 5B HOV lane Benefit-Cost Ratio / Economic Rate of Return (avg. of 14 segments) 9.98 / 41.9% 5C Before HOV all-lanes accident rate (avg. of 11 segments) vs. all-lanes after HOV 0.80 / 0.84 5F HOV lane violation rates (average of 13 segments) 1.4% Notes: Not all study routes/segments were included in the calculations for certain MOEs because of data limitations. Each segment possible is reported on individually in the source document. MOAs 1A, 1C, 1D, 3A, 3B, 4A, and 4B pertain to peak-period, peak-direction traffic flow unless otherwise noted. MOA 1B pertains to peak-hour, peak-direction traffic flow except as noted. See discussion in text under "More..." for primarily qualitative MOEs 2A, 5A, 5D, and 5E. a If applicable. b AM and/or PM. c / = versus. d / = and or respectively.