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CHAPTER 2 TCRP REPORT 95 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration HOV Facilities Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2006 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS David A. Lee Connecticut Transit CHAIR: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MEMBERS VICE CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority Authority, Orlando Linda J. Bohlinger EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board HNTB Corp. Robert I. Brownstein MEMBERS PB Consult, Inc. Peter Cannito Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT, Austin Metropolitan Transportation Authority--Metro Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg North Railroad John D. Bowe, Regional President, APL Americas, Oakland, CA Gregory Cook Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Ann Arbor Transportation Authority Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Nathaniel P. Ford Atlanta, GA San Francisco MUNI Ronald L. Freeland Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. Douglas G. Duncan, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Fred M. Gilliam Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority Charlottesville Kim R. Green Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GFI GENFARE Genevieve Giuliano, Professor and Senior Associate Dean of Research and Technology, Jill A. Hough School of Policy, Planning, and Development, and Director, METRANS National Center North Dakota State University John Inglish for Metropolitan Transportation Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Utah Transit Authority Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark Jeanne W. Krieg University, Worcester, MA Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority James R. Hertwig, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL Celia G. Kupersmith Gloria J. Jeff, General Manager, City of Los Angeles DOT, Los Angeles, CA Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley District Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT, Atlanta Clarence W. Marsella Denver Regional Transportation District Sue McNeil, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Faye L. M. Moore Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Authority Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT, Concord Michael H. Mulhern John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Retirement Fund Stephanie L. Pinson Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. Henry Gerard Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University, St. Louis, MO Robert H. Prince, Jr. Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA DMJM+Harris C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Jeffrey M. Rosenberg Amalgamated Transit Union EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Michael Scanlon San Mateo County Transit District Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Beverly Scott Thomas J. Barrett (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Sacramento Regional Transit District Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT FTA Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Frank Tobey First Transit John Bobo, Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Kathryn D. Waters Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Dallas Area Rapid Transit George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, Frank Wilson National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT William W. Millar Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC APTA John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation TRB Officials, Washington, DC John C. Horsley AASHTO J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, J. Richard Capka John C. Stennis Space Center, MS FHWA William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT APTA James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Carl A. Strock (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of SECRETARY Engineers, Washington, DC Robert J. Reilly TRB *Membership as of September 2006. *Membership as of September 2006.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95 Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Chapter 2--HOV Facilities KATHERINE F. TURNBULL HERBERT S. LEVINSON AND RICHARD H. PRATT Lead Chapter Authors JOHN E. (JAY) EVANS, IV AND KIRAN U. BHATT Contributing Chapter Authors RICHARD H. PRATT, CONSULTANT, INC. Garrett Park, MD TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX JAY EVANS CONSULTING LLC Washington, DC PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF QUADE & DOUGLAS, INC. / PB CONSULT INC. Baltimore, MD, Portland, OR, and San Francisco, CA J. RICHARD KUZMYAK, L.L.C. Silver Spring, MD CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Bethesda, MD BMI-SG, A VHB Company Vienna, VA GALLOP CORPORATION Rockville, MD MCCOLLOM MANAGEMENT CONSULTING, INC. Darnestown, MD HERBERT S. LEVINSON, TRANSPORTATION CONSULTANT New Haven, CT K.T. ANALYTICS, INC. Bethesda, MD S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Public Transit Highway Operations, Capacity and Traffic Control Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95: Chapter 2 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project B-12A environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN-13: 978-0-309-09865-6 of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, ISBN-10: 0-309-09865-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2006935201 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new 2006 Transportation Research Board technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program Price $20.00 (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need NOTICE for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human Research Council. resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies, Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Transportation. educational and research organization established by APTA. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Committee. Research Council. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the Special Notice evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and The Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit expected products. Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail Published reports of the to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Transportation Research Board Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can and can be ordered through the Internet at cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 95 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager STEPHAN A. PARKER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications NATASSJA LINZAU, Associate Editor TCRP PROJECT B-12A PANEL Field of Service Configuration PAUL J. LARROUSSE, National Transit Institute, Rutgers University, NJ (Chair) PATRICK T. DeCORLA-SOUZA, Federal Highway Administration KEITH L. KILLOUGH, KLK Consulting, Los Angeles, CA REZA NAVAI, California DOT CYNTHIA ANN NORDT, The Marketing Studio, Houston, TX NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Maryland State Highway Administration G. SCOTT RUTHERFORD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA DARWIN G. STUART, Skokie, IL RON FISHER, FTA Liaison Representative ERIC PIHL, FTA Liaison Representative RICHARD WEAVER, APTA Liaison Representative CHRISTINE GERENCHER, TRB Liaison Representative

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This "HOV Facilities" chapter covers the traveler response to High Occupancy FOREWORD Vehicle (HOV) applications, except for busways primarily on their own alignment, By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer which are addressed in Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Bus." HOV facilities Transportation Research provide preferential treatment for transit, vanpools, carpools, and other designated Board vehicles by providing lanes and roadways reserved for their use. HOV and bus-only lanes in separate rights-of-way, on freeways and tollways, on ramps, and on arterials and city streets are among the approaches used for giving HOV priority over general traffic. There are numerous applications and treatments found within each of these approaches, with various HOV eligibility provisions. The primary and interrelated goals of HOV facilities are to provide buses, carpools, and vanpools with travel time savings and more predictable travel times, and to conse- quently induce individuals to choose a higher occupancy mode over driving alone. Sup- porting services, facilities, and incentives are often used as further encouragement for significant numbers of individuals to change their commuting to a more cost-effective, higher occupancy travel alternative. This chapter covers the breadth of HOV facilities, inclusive of supportive features, but without examining supportive features in detail. Express bus operations and park- and-ride and park-and-pool facilities are supportive features that enhance the operation of many HOV facilities. These are the subjects of Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Bus," and Chapter 3, "Park-and-Ride/Pool." The traveler response to and related implications of High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes and similar value pricing programs are found in Chapter 14, "Road Value Pricing" (published 2003). Some lim- ited post-2003 HOT lane updates are provided herein. TCRP Report 95: Chapter 2, HOV Facilities will be of interest to transit and trans- portation planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies. The overarching objective of the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook is to equip members of the transportation profession with a com- prehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from (1) different types of transporta- tion system changes and policy actions and (2) alternative land use and site develop- ment design approaches. While the focus is on contemporary observations and assess- ments of traveler responses as expressed in travel demand changes, the presentation is seasoned with earlier experiences and findings to identify trends or stability, and to fill information gaps that would otherwise exist. Comprehensive referencing of additional reference materials is provided to facilitate and encourage in-depth exploration of top- ics of interest. Travel demand and related impacts are expressed using such measures

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as usage of transportation facilities and services, before-and-after market shares and percentage changes, and elasticity. The findings in the Handbook are intended to aid--as a general guide--in prelim- inary screening activities and quick turn-around assessments. The Handbook is not intended for use as a substitute for regional or project-specific travel demand evalua- tions and model applications, or other independent surveys and analyses. The Second Edition of the handbook Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes was published by USDOT in July 1981, and it has been a valuable tool for transportation professionals, providing documentation of results from different types of transportation actions. This Third Edition of the Handbook covers 18 topic areas, including essentially all of the nine topic areas in the 1981 edition, modified slightly in scope, plus nine new topic areas. Each topic is published as a chapter of TCRP Report 95. To access the chapters, select "TCRP, All Projects, B-12A" from the TCRP web- site: http://www.trb.org/tcrp. A team led by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. is responsible for the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition, through work conducted under TCRP Projects B-12, B-12A, and B-12B. REPORT ORGANIZATION The Handbook, organized for simultaneous print and electronic chapter-by-chap- ter publication, treats each chapter essentially as a stand-alone document. Each chap- ter includes text and self-contained references and sources on that topic. For example, the references cited in the text of Chapter 6, "Demand Responsive/ADA," refer to the Reference List at the end of that chapter. The Handbook user should, however, be con- versant with the background and guidance provided in TCRP Report 95: Chapter 1, Introduction. Upon completion of the Report 95 series, the final Chapter 1 publication will include a CD-ROM of all 19 chapters. The complete outline of chapters is provided below.

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Handbook Outline Showing Publication and Source-Data-Cutoff Dates U.S. DOT Publication TCRP Report 95 General Sections and Topic Area Chapters First Second Source Data Publication (TCRP Report 95 Nomenclature) Edition Edition Cutoff Date Date Ch. 1 Introduction (with Appendices A, B) 1977 1981 2003a 2000/03/07a Multimodal/Intermodal Facilities Ch. 2 HOV Facilities 1977 1981 1999-05b 2006 Ch. 3 Park-and-Ride/Pool -- 1981 2003c 2004 Transit Facilities and Services Ch. 4 Busways, BRT and Express Bus 1977e 1981 2006c 2007d Ch. 5 Vanpools and Buspools 1977 1981 1999-04b 2005 Ch. 6 Demand Responsive/ADA -- -- 1999 2004 Ch. 7 Light Rail Transit -- -- 2006d 2007d Ch. 8 Commuter Rail -- -- 2006d 2007d Public Transit Operations Ch. 9 Transit Scheduling and Frequency 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 10 Bus Routing and Coverage 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 11 Transit Information and Promotion 1977 1981 2002 2003 Transportation Pricing Ch. 12 Transit Pricing and Fares 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 13 Parking Pricing and Fees 1977e -- 1999 2005 Ch. 14 Road Value Pricing 1977 e -- 2002-03 b 2003 Land Use and Non-Motorized Travel Ch. 15 Land Use and Site Design -- -- 2001-02b 2003 Ch. 16 Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities -- -- 2006 2007d Ch. 17 Transit Oriented Development -- -- 2004-06b 2007d Transportation Demand Management Ch. 18 Parking Management and Supply -- -- 2000-02b 2003 Ch. 19 Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies 1977e 1981e 2005 2007d a NOTES: Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook (March 2000), without Appendix B. The "Interim Introduction," published as Research Results Digest 61 (September 2003), is a replacement, available at http://www4.trb.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+B- 12A,+Phase+II. Publication of the final version of Chapter 1, "Introduction," as part of the TCRP Report 95 series, is anticipated for 2007. b Primary cutoff was first year listed, but with selected information from second year listed. c The source data cutoff date for certain components of this chapter was 1999. d Estimated. e The edition in question addressed only certain aspects of later edition topical coverage.

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CHAPTER 2 AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TCRP Report 95, in essence the Third Edition of the "Traveler numerous to name but fully appreciated; and lastly the warmly Response to Transportation System Changes" Handbook, is being remembered late Susan Spielberg of SG Associates (now BMI-SG). prepared under Transit Cooperative Research Program Projects Special thanks go to all involved for supporting the cooperative B-12, B-12A and B-12B by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. in process adopted for topic area chapter development. Members of association with the Texas Transportation Institute; Jay Evans Con- the TCRP Project B-12/B-12A/B-12B Project Panel, named else- sulting LLC; Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc./PB Con- where, are providing review and comments for what will total over sult Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Cambridge Systematics, 20 individual publication documents/chapters. They have gone the Inc.; BMI-SG: a VHB company; Gallop Corporation; McCollom extra mile in providing support on call including leads, reports, doc- Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. Levinson, Transportation umentation, advice, and direction over what will be the decade-long Consultant; and K.T. Analytics, Inc. duration of the project. Four consecutive appointed or acting TCRP Richard H. Pratt is the Principal Investigator. Dr. Katherine F. Senior Program Officers have given their support: Stephanie N. Turnbull of the Texas Transportation Institute assisted as co-Princi- Robinson, who took the project through scope development and pal Investigator during initial Project B-12 phases, leading up to the contract negotiation; Stephen J. Andrle, who led the work during Phase I Interim Report and the Phase II Draft Interim Handbook. the Project B-12 Phase and on into the TCRP B-12A Project Con- With the addition of Project B-12B research, John E. (Jay) Evans, IV, tinuation; Harvey Berlin, who saw the Interim Handbook through then of Jay Evans Consulting LLC, was appointed the co-Principal to Website publication; and Stephan A. Parker, who is guiding the Investigator. Lead Handbook chapter authors and co authors, in entire project to its complete fruition. Editor Natassja Linzau is addition to Mr. Pratt, are Mr. Evans (initially with Parsons Brincker- providing her careful examination and fine touch, while Managing hoff and now with Cambridge Systematics); Dr. Turnbull; J. Richard Editor Eileen Delaney and her team are handling all the numerous Kuzmyak, initially of Cambridge Systematics and now of J. Richard publication details. The efforts of all are greatly appreciated. Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Frank Spielberg of BMI-SG; Brian E. McCollom Continued recognition is due to the participants in the develop- of McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. Levinson, ment of the First and Second Editions, key elements of which are Transportation Consultant; Erin Vaca of Cambridge Systematics, retained. Co-authors to Mr. Pratt were Neil J. Pedersen and Joseph Inc.; and Dr. G. Bruce Douglas of PB Consult. Contributing authors J. Mather for the First Edition, and John N. Copple for the Second include Dr. Kiran U. Bhatt, K.T. Analytics, Inc.; Shawn M. Turner, Edition. Crucial support and guidance for both editions was pro- Texas Transportation Institute; Dr. Rachel Weinberger, Cambridge vided by the Federal Highway Administration's Technical Repre- Systematics (now with the University of Pennsylvania); Andrew sentative (COTR), Louise E. Skinner. Stryker, PB Consult; and Dr. C. Y. Jeng, Gallop Corporation. In the TCRP Report 95 edition, Katherine F. Turnbull, Herbert S. Other research agency team members contributing to the Levinson, and Richard H. Pratt are the lead authors for this volume: preparatory research, synthesis of information, and development of Chapter 2, "HOV Facilities." Contributing authors for Chapter 2 this Handbook have been Stephen Farnsworth, Laura Higgins, and are John (Jay) Evans and Kiran U. Bhatt. Rachel Donovan of the Texas Transportation Institute; Nick Vlahos, Participation by the profession at large has been absolutely Vicki Ruiter, and Karen Higgins of Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; essential to the development of the Handbook and this chapter. Lydia Wong, Gordon Schultz, Bill Davidson, and G.B. Arrington Members of volunteer Review Groups, established for each chap- of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc./PB Consult Inc.; ter, reviewed outlines, provided leads, and in many cases undertook Kris Jagarapu of BMI-SG; Sarah Dowling of Jay Evans Consulting substantive reviews. Though all members who assisted are not LLC; and Laura C. (Peggy) Pratt of Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, listed here in the interests of brevity, their contribution is truly val- Inc. As Principal Investigator, Mr. Pratt has participated iteratively ued. Interim Handbook version Chapter 2 reviews were undertaken and substantively in the development of each chapter. Dr. C. Y. Jeng by Review Group members Les Jacobson, Tom Mulligan, Luisa of Gallop Corporation has provided pre-publication numerical qual- Paiewonsky, and Dave Schumacher. William G. Allen, Jr., stepped ity control review. By special arrangement, Dr. Daniel B. Rathbone in to provide an additional outside review. of The Urban Transportation Monitor searched past issues. Assis- Finally, sincere thanks are due to the many practitioners and tance in word processing, graphics and other essential support researchers who were contacted for information and unstintingly has been provided by Bonnie Duke and Pam Rowe of the Texas supplied both that and all manner of statistics, data compilations, Transportation Institute; Karen Applegate, Laura Reseigh, Stephen and reports. Though not feasible to list here, many appear in the Bozik, and Jeff Waclawski of Parsons Brinckerhoff; others too "References" section entries of this and other chapters.

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CHAPTER 2--HOV FACILITIES CONTENTS Overview and Summary, 2-1 Objectives of HOV Facilities, 2-2 Types of HOV Facilities and Treatments, 2-2 Analytical Considerations, 2-4 Traveler Response Summary, 2-5 Traveler Response by Type of HOV Application, 2-8 Underlying Traveler Response Factors, 2-54 Related Information and Impacts, 2-71 Additional Resources, 2-98 Case Studies, 2-99 References, 2-117 How to Order TCRP Report 95, 2-127