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3 Figure 1-1. LFLRV, Santa Clara Valley Transit Authority. approximately matches the number of high-floor cars. Figure Excessive rail wear; 1-2 also shows that, within the low-floor sector, the total num- Reduced ride quality, including hunting and excessive ber of 100-percent low-floor cars matches the total number of curving; and partial low-floor cars and that these proportions have changed Noise and vibration. in the past 10 years. All new orders for light rail vehicles (LRVs) in Europe since 2000 have been low-floor types, except where These issues will vary with the type of infrastructure (i.e., the systems needed to have high-floor vehicles because they on different types of embedded and ballasted track, on tan- have high platforms. Few European systems have high plat- gent track, curves and special trackwork). Solutions may vary forms. Given the prevalence and popularity of these designs, according to this context and all have been considered. solutions to any issues are needed urgently. The research has been undertaken on the basis that, Chapter 2 of this report discusses low-floor developments although sometimes unsatisfactory performance has a single and applications in detail. cause, it often has multiple causes. The issues being observed may well be concurrent manifestations of multiple failure phe- nomena and, therefore, even more difficult to isolate and iden- 1.4 Potential Issues tify. Examples of this would include design issues aggravated The performance issues identified in the research project by operating practice, infrastructure characteristics, or even statement issued by TCRP (1) that have been considered something as highly variable as dynamic passenger loading. specifically within this study are Chapter 3 discusses performance issues and their possible causes based on the research carried out, which consisted Derailments, especially those of the center trucks; both of original research and reviews of earlier published Asymmetric wheel flange wear and grooving of treads; material on the same topics. Table 1-1. Examples of the worldwide application of LFLRVs. Region No. of systems No. of systems Percentage Note that could use using Application LFLRVs LFLRVs USA and 26 8 31% Some old and many Canada new LRT systems UK and Ireland 7 5 71% Mostly new systems France 12 12 100% Some old and many new LRT systems Germany 59 42 71% Many old systems, very few new ones Benelux 9 8 89% Mostly old systems Australia 3 3 100% Mostly old systems LRT, light rail transit.