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35 CHAPTER 4 Guidance 4.1 Purpose and Structure it chooses, subject only to U.S. and Canadian legislation and reg- ulation. This may not always be the case, even with a totally new This guidance applies to the introduction, operation, and system, in that the system may be using some existing infra- maintenance of LFLRVs of a specific type (i.e., three-section structure or be constrained in other ways. The guidance only cars with the short center section carried on an unpowered covers those elements of specifications that directly influence truck having IRWs). This guidance covers infrastructure as the performance of LFLRVs; other elements must not conflict well as the vehicles themselves and is state of the art, subject with these. Users of the guidance need to bear these points in to the limitations of this and earlier research programs. This mind. guidance is confined to measures identified in this research as Existing systems also may be able to make infrastructure a means of mitigating specific performance issues (i.e., derail- modifications over time and to introduce new standards for ment, wheel and rail wear, noise and poor ride). This guid- extensions and new projects. Existing systems also may pro- ance has been designed to be clear, applicable, and easy to cure new vehicles in the near future (e.g., if a market else- refer to by the intended users: where can be found for the LFLRVs they are currently using). Most issues are likely to be "system issues" (i.e., resulting from · Transit agencies that operate or plan to operate LFLRVs, the combination of vehicles and track), so moving vehicles · Rail vehicle and infrastructure maintenance organizations, between systems may either solve or worsen these issues. · Rail vehicle manufacturers, Guidance is split into section headings to facilitate this · Rail vehicle sub-suppliers, tiered approach. The sequence is based on the timescale asso- · State regulatory and oversight authorities, and ciated with introducing vehicles now adopting best practice · National bodies. in future, as follows: The application of the guidance will differ for existing and · Vehicle standards, planned new systems. On existing systems, decisions requir- · Vehicle selection issues, ing changes must allow for the costs of modifying infrastruc- · Vehicle maintenance, ture and vehicles, whereas on new systems best practice may · Vehicle modification, be designed in from the start. Recommendations for modify- · Future vehicle design, ing vehicle designs for future orders will not be implemented · Infrastructure standards, immediately by suppliers, implying a tiered approach. Table · Operation of LFLRVs, 4-1 shows the range of possibilities in terms of time frame. · Infrastructure maintenance, "Existing vehicles" refers to LFLRVs operating on transit · Infrastructure modification, and systems in the United States and Canada and remaining in use · Best practice for system design. on those specific systems. "Vehicles currently available" refers to vehicles that might be transferred to another system or new Each of these sections is further divided into specific com- vehicles built to the same design or a design in use on other ponent areas, organized and presented to be easily accessed systems worldwide. and referenced. Cross references are supplied to other chap- It has been assumed that a "new" system will start with total ters of this report to indicate why the guidance is given so that freedom to specify and use whatever vehicles and infrastructure users can gain a full understanding by making use of these