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4 Figure 1-2. Cumulative worldwide pattern of LRV vehicle orders since 1967. 1.5 Organization of the Report for the systems studied in most detail and a comparison of track maintenance standards between the United States and Chapter 2 describes (1) LFLRV technology and its applica- Germany, and a bibliography. tion worldwide, (2) how it has developed and the issues that have emerged worldwide, (3) how these issues have been mil- 1.6 Dimensions itated against, and (4) how the industry has reacted. Chapter 2 also looks at trends resulting from this experience. The U.S. and Canadian transit systems use U.S. system Chapter 3 covers each of the identified performance issues. measurements but some of the suppliers will have used the For each issue, generic examples that have occurred in the metric system in order to design equipment and products. United States are given with explanations of what type of In addition the research has compared U.S. and European vehicles and conditions were involved. Chapter 3 also explains standards where the latter have also used the metric system. potential causes of performance issues, including contribu- The convention that has been adopted in this report is as tory factors and justifications for the research findings. follows: Chapter 4 is practical guidance on dealing with the per- formance issues, with sections that apply to specific stages in U.S. system measurement only--All distances, speeds, application and to the interests of different users. Chapter 4 mass and weight. Also length, where there is no value in includes advice on best practices for system design so as to showing a metric equivalent (e.g., the route length of a avoid future issues. system). Chapter 5 identifies future research that might be carried U.S. system measurements with metric system equiva- out either to examine these issues in more detail or to gener- lents--Lengths where it is useful to show a metric equiva- ally facilitate the introduction of LFLRVs in the United States lent to facilitate comparison with other metric figures. An and Canada. example of this would be 3 inches (76.2 mm). Chapter 6 summarizes the conclusions of the research. Metric system measurements with U.S. equivalents-- Appendixes provide more detail on the research carried Lengths originally specified in the metric system, including out, a glossary of the terms used, vehicle data and track data manufacturer's designs and European standards, may also

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5 be expressed in the metric system when referred to by some associated with track gauge are also shown in millime- U.S. transit systems. An example of this would be 75 mm ters so as to facilitate comparison. (2.95 inches). Fractions--These are used for length dimensions in units Track gauge--This is generally referred to as 1,435 mm, of one-half, one-third, one-quarter, one-eighth, and one- without showing the conversion to U.S. standards (56.5 sixteenth of an inch; in all other cases, length dimensions inches), so as to avoid repetition. Other dimensions are expressed in decimals.