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72 APPENDIX F Bibliography Part 1. Most Relevant Sources with existing systems and operations, and two case studies (including a brief summary) that help define risk assessment and operating compatibility. Breindl/Hachmann/Risch, "Radverschleiß und polygonale Anon. "Richtlinien für die Spurführung von Schienenbah- Radabnutzung an Straßenbahnen. Untersuchungen der BVG nen nach der Verordnung über den Bau und Betrieb der Berlin und Adtranz Nürnberg," (Polygonal wheel wear on Straßenbahnen (BOStrab), Spurführungs-Richtlinien trams. Research by BVG Berlin and Adtranz Nürnberg.) Der (SpR)," (Regulations on the Guidance of Rail Vehicles in Nahverkehr March 2000. accordance with the German Federal Regulations on the Con- BVG (Berlin) operates a vehicle pool of 452 Tatra and struction and Operation of Light Rail Transit Systems 105 low-floor vehicles of the GT6 type. After introduction (BOStrab), Guidance Regulations (SpR). March 2004. of the vehicles, very high wheel and flange wear and the This document explains the German regulations on the development of polygons on the wheels was recorded. To guidance of streetcars. There is considerable detailed infor- counteract this, a catalog of measures was developed that mation on the wheel and track profiles and other key param- included first a study of the current status of wear and the eters used in different circumstances. polygon developments for the low- and high-floor vehicles. Anon. "VDV-600 Oberbau Richtlinien und Zusatzrichtlin- To avoid the development of excessive noise, a track-based ien," VDV 1995. measuring system was introduced that detects problems A regulatory document detailing track design parameters when vehicles pass into the depot. As a result of the study, for German streetcar systems. Supplementary to the above the re-profiling of the wheels was optimized by modifying reference. the wheel lathe. The article concludes that systematic Aprile, Bandinelli, Marianeschi, "Integrating Low-Floor research into the reasons for polygon development would Technology into a pre-existing infrastructure: partial low- be necessary. floor light rail vehicle in a mixed environment: Lessons Brickle/Gilchrist, "A re-examination of the proneness to learned from the manufacture of Boston's partial low-floor derailment of a railway wheelset." IMechE 1976. Light Rail Vehicle," TRC E-C058, 8th National Rail Transit A theoretical study that looks in detail at derailment theory Conference. TRB 2000. for conventional wheelsets. The Breda approach to developing the MBTA Type 8 car, Canjea/Thornes, "NJ Transit Low Floor Light Rail Car - A then seen as one of the most difficult operating environments Modern Design." TRC E-C058, 8th National Rail Transit on a U.S. and Canadian transit system. The technical issues, Conference, TRB 2000. solutions, and risk control measures are discussed. This paper gives both technical details of the design of the APTA, "Standard for Rail Transit Track Inspection and Kinki Sharyo cars and information regarding the operational Maintenance. Volume 5 - Fixed Structure, RT-S-FS-002-02, experience gained. Draft- July 26th 2004. Elkins/Wilson, "Wheel/rail interaction: flange climb derail- Minimum requirements for inspecting and maintaining ment and effects of IRW," TTCI Rail Transit '04, 2004. rail transit system tracks. This presentation deals with the fundamental theory of Booz, Allen and Hamilton Inc. TCRP Report 2: Applicabil- wheelset curving and derailment, and then contrasts this with ity of Low-Floor Light Rail Vehicles in North America, 1995. the behavior of independent wheels. The sensitivity of inde- Review of all LFLRVs in use in the United States and pendent wheel center trucks to vehicle design parameters is Canada. Discussion of vehicle applicability, compatibility explored in detail.
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73 Fraser/Leary/Marianeschi/Pellegrini, "Integrating new Frederich, "Horizonte der Spurfuhrung," (Horizons of light rail vehicle technology into mature infrastructure," TRC wheelset alignment and tracking). ZEV + DET Glas.Ann 124, E-C058, 9th National Rail Transit Conference. TRB 2003. May 2000. In 1995, MBTA ordered 100 partial low-floor, double- Wheelsets and ideal alignment and tracking are still being articulated LRVs from AnsaldoBreda. These vehicles operate considered as inseparable. It is revealed by a closer review that in consist with existing high-floor, single articulated LRVs. wheelsets do not really lend themselves to high-speed run- Some of the challenges faced by the project team are dis- ning or curve running. An additional drawback is their high cussed. Derailments of the leading axle of the center truck weight. have been an issue. Several modifications were implemented The systematic search for other rolling and alignment prin- following a study of vehicle dynamics and an investigation of ciples has led to new solutions that will open the way to new the effects of track quality. methods of alignment and tracking. Today, three directions Frederich/Kraft, "Funktionale Spurfuhrungsgeometrie fur of development are feasible. Nahverkehrsbahnen," (Functional tracking geometry for Heilig/Porter, "Finally some Operating Experience with commuter type railways) Der Nahverkehr, April 1999. Low Floor Light Rail Vehicles (In North America). TRC Tracking is the general term for the two functions "track E-C058, 8th National Rail Transit Conference. TRB 2000. guidance" and "track securing." Track guidance is per- Experience of operation of the Portland LFLRVs during formed by the geometry of running surface and the railhead. the first 2 years of revenue service. Reliability parameters are Track securing is acting, if holding the track by the running quantified and compared with those for older high-floor surface is not sufficient any more. This operating condition vehicles. Topics covered include service reliability, ride qual- has to be avoided as far as possible, because it will create high ity, and the performance of the center trucks. forces and thus wear, increased running resistance, and Hondius, "Citadis-Straßenbahnen: Entwicklungen seit noise. 1999. Ein Überblick über die Evolution der Niederflur- Frederich/Kraft, "Berechnungen zur Spurführung. Wie Baureihe von Alstom," (Citadis trams: Development since prüft man die richtige Abstimmung von Fahrwerk und 1999. An overview on the evolution of the Alstom low-floor Gleis?" Calculations for wheel-rail guidance. How to evaluate concept.). Der Nahverkehr, January/February 2004. the correct calibration between truck (running gear) and History of the development of the Citadis Models as 6 low- track?, Der Nahverkehr, May 1999. floor versions. Citadis are a hybrid construction, using welded Determination of the common geometric plane (GGE) aluminum, steel as well as rivets to combine aluminum and outline of the flangeinterdependence between rail head steel. Citadis-Trams have no major mechanical faults and, in and wheel profiledetermination of guidance dimensions general, a good reputation. geometrical criteria. The goal was the functional determination Hüber, "Laufruhe von Niederflurbahnen: Möglichkeiten of guidance dimensions; systematic research into the require- der Optimierung," (Running smoothness of low-floor vehi- ments of the guidance geometry for rapid transit systems, and cles: Potential for optimization.). Der Nahverkehr, September development of an assessment system for the co-ordination of 2004. the transverse dimensions of truck (running gear) and track. Development of LFLRVs since the end of the 1980s. Development of the formulae with the example of a fixed-axle Description of the development of different types, including truck; the system demonstrated is based on functional track and 70-percent low floor with single wheel, single axles, and 100- truck dimensions. percent single wheel trucks. Description of the problems Frederich,"Nullebenen-Konzept der Spurführung,"(Apply- operating wheelsets without axles on light rail networks ing the zero-level concept to improve the track following because the wheel back-to-back distance cannot be kept con- capability), ZEV + DET Glas.Ann 123, August 1999. stant after longer periods of operation. A description of the The combination of traditional mechanics and modern high wear resulting from the lack of sinus running when no electronics is opening new dimensions and possibilities. fixed axles are used. After a description of the possible solu- Advances in automobile engineering and modern mechani- tions for low-floor vehicles, the author gives a statement as to cal engineering have proved this. the best construction for low-floor vehicles with optimal An analysis of the wheel/rail contact conditions of conven- guidance characteristics. tional wheelset has led to a new track following principle. The Int-Veen/Nimphius, "Niederflurbahnen für Essen. undesirable wave phenomenon is eliminated without impair- Erfahrungen nach drei Jahren Praxiseinsatz," (Low floor ing the desirable radial self-alignment. The solution is called streetcars for Essen. Experiences after three years practical zero-level concept with power diversion control and elec- application). Der Nahverkehr, December 2002. tronic wave compensation. The paper describes the principle, The article deals with the 70-percent low-floor vehicles the implementation, and the results obtained on two experi- introduced to the Essen network between 1999 and 2001. The mental trucks. vehicles were manufactured by Bombardier. Some detail is
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74 provided about the operational experience, such as require- Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., TCRP ments determined by existing infrastructure and the specifi- Report 57: Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, 2000. cations of the operator. Issues such as introduction to service, A detailed review of LRT operations in the United States experiences with vehicle electrical and mechanical systems, and Canada. Includes vehicles, track geometry, structural treatment of life-cycle-costs, energy consumption, wheel designs, track materials and special trackwork, aerial struc- wear, brakes, doors, bonding, and derailment are covered. tures, and signals. Kramp, Shu, Wilson, "Effects of Independently Rolling Pearce/Sherratt, "Wheel Profile Shapes." Paper presented at Wheels on Flange Climbing Derailment", ASME 2004. the Wheels and Axles Seminar, Institution of Mechanical Extended description of the work covered in the report by Engineers, April 1999. Elkins and Wilson (see above). Basic principles involved in developing wheel profiles, Krettek/Miluczky, "Zum Einfluss der Dachdampfer auf including LRVs for operation both on tramway and railway den Lauf von Niederflur-Multigelenkstadtbahnwagen," infrastructure. (About the influence of roof dampers on the running behav- Pearson, "Passenger Access Considerations for Low-floor ior of multi-articulation streetcars) proprietary note, 2002. Light Rail Vehicles," TRC E-C058, 8th National Rail Transit The authors are describing the investigations in regard Conference. TRB 2000. to the optimization of the running behavior of the multi- This paper considers the relationship between vehicle and articulation low-floor vehicle 2000 of the Duisburg transit platform heights for LFLRVs, taking into account all the main authorities DVG. This vehicle showed unacceptable lateral contributory variables (e.g., track bed, truck, and suspension and yaw modes. characteristics). Applicable FTA and ADA regulations are Modifications on the drive concept, intercar dampers and discussed. modifications of the wheel profile contributed to a consider- Schreiber, "Betrachtungen zum Spurkranzverschleiss an able improvement of the running behavior. den Losraden des Niederflurmittelwagens," (Consideration of Lenti, "Simulation einer Strassenbahn mit Einzel- the flange wear on the single wheels of the low floor inter- radaufhangung," (Simulation of a streetcar with single mediate section) proprietary note, 1997. wheels) Stadtverkehr April 2002 (Volume 47). The author describes the behavior of the single wheels of During the design of the new streetcar for Turin, Italy, the low-floor intermediate sections of streetcars (a popular ALSTOM Ferroviaria decided to determine the dynamic enhancement of the capacity of existing vehicles in Europe). behavior of the vehicle by means of virtual prototyping. The pros and cons of the solution are discussed and the the- ADAMS/Rail was used to simulate the vehicle, validation of ory of the behavior of these running gears is given. Estimates the models were performed, and the dynamic behavior of the on the life of the wheels are given and procedures to guar- first streetcars was as predicted. This tool proved to be well antee the standing of the profile between reprofiling are suited for this purpose. given. MBTA Internet Homepage 31.10.04. www.mbta.com. Snowdon, "The Development of Tyre Profiles for Tramway Information on Type 8 LRV. and Light Rail Operation". Paper presented at the Wheels and Green Line Fleet List. Status of type 8 cars. Chronology of Axles Seminar, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, April events involving type 8 cars. 1999. Morgan, "Light Rail Vehicles' Low-Floor Center Section," Paper by the Chief Engineer, Tramtrack, Croydon, describ- TRC E-C058, 9th National Rail Transit Conference. TRB ing how the wheel profiles of the Docklands Light Railway 2003. were developed. A report on the assessment by Dallas (DART) for intro- Stöhrer, "Leoliner: Neue Niederflurbahn für knappe ducing LFLRVs, taking into account all related issues, includ- Beschaffungsbudgets,"(Leoliner: New Low-floor tram for ing infrastructure changes. The LFLRV would be existing cars tight procurement budgets). Der Nahverkehr, November with an added center section. High speed was an issue, 2003. because of lack of experience of high-speed applications of In Sept 2003, the prototype of the new six-axle low-floor this solution. The decision was mainly based on cost; techni- articulated tram NGTW 6 Leoliner was introduced. Previ- cal issues were barely discussed. ously (1994), the LVB (public transport operator in Leipzig) Nelson. TCRP Report 23: Wheel/rail Noise Control had ordered 56 articulated low-floor vehicles. The Leoliner Manual, 1997. concept is to get new vehicles in "half the time for half the A very detailed review of railroad borne noise, including price." It has been designed and manufactured by LFB, a joint wheel/rail noise generation, noise control treatments, and venture of LVB and Siemens TS. The vehicles operate on stan- cost analysis. dard bogies for off-street track in the non-modernized parts
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75 of the network. Width of the vehicles is 2,300 mm, 60 percent Dillig, "Präsentation der Niederflur-Straßenbahn für of the vehicle is low-floor. Halle." (Presentation of low floor trams for Halle) Suda, "Dynamic stability and steering ability of steering Stadtverkehr Sonderdruck 1993. trucks using unsymmetrical suspension with independently Dillig, "Avanto Tram-Train für die SNCF." (Avanto Tram rotating wheels," World Congress on Railway Research, Train for French National Railways). Der Stadtverkehr November 1997,Volume D. 2002/10. This paper presents the dynamic stability and steering abil- Hondius, "Die Entwicklung der Nieder- und Mittelflur- ity around curves of a new truck for rail vehicles with IRWs Straßen- und Stadtbahnen." (The Development of Low floor in the trailing axle. From the theoretical analysis using a truck and Middle floor Trams and Light Rail Vehicles Der model, the proposed truck has better curving performance Stadtverkehr (Series of articles - still being published). than conventional trucks with normal wheelsets. 1989/02, 1990/05, 1992/03, 1992/04, 1993/01, 1993/02, Swanson, "Evolution, Not Revolution in LRV Design," TRC 1993/10, 1993/11-12, 1994/06, 1995/02, 1995/03, 1996/01, E-C058, 8th National Rail Transit Conference, TRB 2000. 1996/02-03, 1997/09, 1998/09, 1998/10, 1999/11-12, An overview of some of the commercial considerations 2000/01, 2000/11-12, 2001/01, 2001/11-12, 2002/01, that influence LFLRV design. Not particularly relevant other 2002/11-12, 2003/01, 2003/11-12, 2004/01, 2004/11-12, than as a source of some general system parameters. 2005/01. Wu, Shu, Wilson, TCRP Report 71, Volume 5: Flange Climb Hondius, "Frankfurt/M.: Übergabe des ersten in Serie Derailment Criteria and Wheel/Rail Profile Management and hergestellten R-Wagens." (Frankfurt-on-Main: Delivery of Maintenance Guidelines for Transit Operations. Transporta- the first of the R series cars) Stadtverkehr Sonderdruck tion Technology Center, Inc. TRB 2005. 1993. Results of the research carried out under TCRP Project Hondius, "Potsdam: ViP nimmt ersten Serien-Combino in D-7. It describes flange climb derailment criteria for transit Betrieb." (Potsdam: The first of the Combino series enters vehicles that include lateral-to-vertical (L/V) ratio limits and service). Der Stadtverkehr 1999/01. a corresponding flange-climb-distance limit and provides Hondius, "Incentro - die neue Systemstraßenbahn von guidance for wheel and rail maintenance practices. Adtranz," (Incentro - the new tram concept from Adtranz). Zarembski, "Derailment of Transit Vehicles in Special Der Stadtverkehr 2000/06. Trackwork", TCRP Final Draft Report, July 1996. Zeta-Tech. Hondius, "Die Drehgestell-Niederflurbahnen NF 2000 von Results of the research carried out under TCRP Project Bombardier Transportation." (The low floor light rail truck D-2. The objective was to determine the most cost-effective NF 2000 from Bombardier Transportation", Der Stadtverkehr mitigation devices and techniques to be used by rail rapid 2001/05. transit systems to reduce or eliminate the possibility of spe- Hondius, "Der Bombardier-Cityrunner für die Grazer cial trackwork derailments. Verkehrsbetriebe." (The Bombardier Cityrunner for the Graz Transport Company). Der Stadtverkehr 2001/06. Hondius, Neue Bahnen für Schwerin. (New rail vehicles for Part 2. Other Sources Schwerin). Der Stadtverkehr 2001/09. Anon, "Niederflur-Straßenbahn-Prototyp für München." Hondius, "System cars dominate falling market." Railway (Low floor prototype tram for Munich). Stadtverkehr Son- Gazette Metro Report 2002. derdruck 1993. Hondius, "Die Combino-Lieferung an M>Tram Mel- APTA,"Passenger Rail Equipment Safety Standards Task bourne hat begonnen." (Supply of Combinos to the Mel- Force Technical Bulletin 1998-1, part 1 on Commuter Car bourne Tramway begins). Stadtverkehr 2002/05. Safety Regarding: Wheel Running Surface Manufacturing Hondius, "Neuentwicklung: Regiotram-Fahrzeuge für den And Reprofiling Contour," Prepared by the Wheel/rail Inter- Raum Kassel." (New developments: Regiotram vehicles for face Working Group of the Passenger Rail Equipment Safety the Kassel region.) Der Stadtverkehr 2002/05. Standards (PRESS) Task Force, November 3rd, 1998. Hondius, "Avanto, die neue System-Niederflurstadtbahn Bombardier Eurorail, "Zweisystemfahrzeug Stadtbahn von Siemens TS." (Avanto the new low floor tram design Saar." (Dual system rail vehicle for the Saar Light Rail system). from Siemens Transportation Systems). Stadtverkehr Supplier literature, 1996/07. 2002/06. CKD Tatra, "Dreiteiliger Niederflur-Stadtbahnwagen RT6- Hondius, "Neue Fahrzeuge und Strecken in Linz." (New N1."(Three section low floor tram RT6-N1). Supplier literature. vehicles and services in Linz) Der Stadtverkehr 2002/07-08. DeLibero, "MetroRail paves the way towards a compre- Hondius, "Big builders face uncertainty as system cars hensive mobility plan." Railway Gazette Metro Report 2002. dominate the market." Railway Gazette Metro Report 2004.
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76 Hondius, "Bombardier-Straßenbahn für Eskisehir bei Riechers, "Die Stadtwerke Ulm/Neu-Ulm erneuern ihren OEG erprobt." (Bombardier tram for Eskisehir (Turkey) is Straßenbahnpark," (The public transport systems of Ulm tested by OEG). Der Stadtverkehr 2004/04. and New Ulm replace their tram fleet) Der Stadtverkehr Kunow, "Kassel: Neue Niederflur-Straßenbahn." (Kassel: 2003/06. New low-floor tram). Stadtverkehr Sonderdruck 1993. Sarunac/Zeolla, "Structural and Crashworthiness Require- Lehna/Theiler. "What is the Advantage of Optimizing the ments of Light Rail Vehicles with Low-Floor Extension."Trans- Wheel/Rail Profiles?" Presentation given at InnoTrans 2004. portation Research E-Circular E-C058, pages 89-103, 2003. Lehna/Theiler/Imhof. "Radprofiloptimierung bei den STADLER, "Stadler präsentiert Prototyp des Gelenktrieb- Verkehrsbetrieben Zürich" ("Wheel Profile optimization on wagens 2/6." (Stadler presents the prototype driving trailer the Zurich Transport System"). Presentation prepared by the 2/6). Press release 1995/08. Institut für Bahntechnik GmbH (In German). Tuzik, "Examining wheel/rail interaction on rail transit Marie, "Hiawatha joins the light rail family." Railway systems." "Interface," November 4th 2004. Gazette Metro Report 2004. Uebel, "Die Entwicklung des Niederflur-Gelenktriebwa- Op de Beeck/Mechelen/Hondius, "Neue Straßenbahnwa- gens GT 6 N der Bremer Straßenbahn AG." (The development gen für "De Lijn," (New Tram for the Belgian Coast Light Rail- of the low floor driving trailers GT 6 N of Bremen Tramways) way). Der Stadtverkehr 2000/03. Stadtverkehr Sonderdruck 1993.