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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 114 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Center Truck Performance on Low-Floor Light Rail Vehicles

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2006 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS David A. Lee Connecticut Transit CHAIR: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MEMBERS VICE CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority Authority, Orlando Linda J. Bohlinger EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board HNTB Corp. Robert I. Brownstein MEMBERS PB Consult, Inc. Peter Cannito Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT, Austin Metropolitan Transportation Authority--Metro Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg North Railroad John D. Bowe, Regional President, APL Americas, Oakland, CA Gregory Cook Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Ann Arbor Transportation Authority Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Nathaniel P. Ford Atlanta, GA San Francisco MUNI Ronald L. Freeland Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. Douglas G. Duncan, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Fred M. Gilliam Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority Charlottesville Kim R. Green Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GFI GENFARE Genevieve Giuliano, Professor and Senior Associate Dean of Research and Technology, Jill A. Hough School of Policy, Planning, and Development, and Director, METRANS National Center North Dakota State University John Inglish for Metropolitan Transportation Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Utah Transit Authority Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark Jeanne W. Krieg University, Worcester, MA Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority James R. Hertwig, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL Celia G. Kupersmith Gloria J. Jeff, General Manager, City of Los Angeles DOT, Los Angeles, CA Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley District Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT, Atlanta Clarence W. Marsella Denver Regional Transportation District Sue McNeil, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Faye L. M. Moore Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Authority Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT, Concord Michael H. Mulhern John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Retirement Fund Stephanie L. Pinson Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. Henry Gerard Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University, St. Louis, MO Robert H. Prince, Jr. Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA DMJM+Harris C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Jeffrey M. Rosenberg Amalgamated Transit Union EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Michael Scanlon San Mateo County Transit District Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Beverly Scott Thomas J. Barrett (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Sacramento Regional Transit District Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT FTA Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Frank Tobey First Transit John Bobo, Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Kathryn D. Waters Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Dallas Area Rapid Transit George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, Frank Wilson National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT William W. Millar Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC APTA John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation TRB Officials, Washington, DC John C. Horsley AASHTO J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, J. Richard Capka John C. Stennis Space Center, MS FHWA William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT APTA James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Carl A. Strock (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of SECRETARY Engineers, Washington, DC Robert J. Reilly TRB *Membership as of September 2006. *Membership as of September 2006.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 114 Center Truck Performance on Low-Floor Light Rail Vehicles Trevor Griffin INTERFLEET TECHNOLOGY, INC. DERBY, UNITED KINGDOM Subject Areas Public Transit Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 114 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Price $34.00 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current Project C-16 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISSN 1073-4872 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve ISBN-13: 978-0-309-09863-2 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to ISBN-10: 0-309-09863-7 adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- Library of Congress Control Number 2006908254 duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by 2006 Transportation Research Board which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report COPYRIGHT PERMISSION 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A published or copyrighted material used herein. report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- NOTICE posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- purposes and resources of the National Research Council. ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Department of Transportation. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Committee defines funding levels and expected products. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 114 Robert J. Reilly, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher W. Jenks, TCRP Manager Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT C-16 PANEL Field of Engineering of Vehicles and Equipment Richard J. Leary, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston, MA (Chair) Stelian Canjea, New Jersey Transit Corporation, Bloomfield, NJ Scott Grogan, Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (TX), Houston, TX Tedd Hankins, King County (WA) Metro, Seattle, WA Jay Harper, Valley Metro Rail, Inc., Phoenix, AZ Kenneth J. Kirse, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District, Portland, OR James Nelson, Wilson, Ihrig & Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA Carlos Garay, FTA Liaison Aaron C. James, Sr., FTA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Trevor Griffin of Interfleet Technology was the Principal Investigator for TCRP Project C-16. He was assisted by Jim Wiesinger, John Simpson, Paul Heath, Helmut Hanel, and Andy McDonald of Interfleet; Dr. Allan Zarembski and Donald Holfeld of ZETA-TECH Associates; Raul Bravo, Peter Klauser, and Robin Hazy of Raul V. Bravo and Associates; Bernhard Huber, Martin Schmidt, and Roman Hfeli of PROSE AG, Switzerland; Nils Jnig, Peter Forcher, Steffen Plogstert, and Olaf Ritz of Transport Technologie Consult Karlsruhe, Germany; and Heribert Lehna of the Institut fr Bahntechnik, Berlin, Germany. The following transit systems kindly supplied substantial input to this study about their vehicles, infra- structure, and experience: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Metropolitan Transit Authority, Houston, Texas New Jersey Transit San Diego Trolley, California Santa Clara Valley Transit Authority, California Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Toronto Transit Commission TriMet, Portland, Oregon

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FOREWORD By Christopher W. Jenks TCRP Manager Transportation Research Board This report should be of interest to engineers, manufacturers, maintainers, and others inter- ested in low-floor light rail vehicle (LFLRV) center truck performance issues and their poten- tial solutions for center trucks with unpowered, independently rotating wheels (IRWs). The report describes performance issues observed in the operation of LFLRV center trucks (focus- ing on 70-percent low-floor vehicles), such as excessive wheel wear and noise and occasional derailments, and provides guidance on how to minimize or avoid these issues. The report also includes guidance on LFLRV specifications, maintenance, and design, as well as on related infra- structure design and maintenance, to maximize performance of these LFLRV center trucks. Low-floor light rail vehicles (LFLRVs) are used by many transit systems with increasing popularity. The typical design includes a three-section articulated vehicle body with the cen- ter section connected to a center truck with unpowered, independently rotating wheels (IRWs). The leading and trailing sections of the vehicle are each supported by a motored truck at one end and by the common non-powered center truck at the other. The low-floor height prevents the use of wheel sets with solid axle connections between right and left wheels of the center truck. In acceleration and braking modes during curving, because there are two articulations connecting the center section, the center section and truck may rotate excessively, thereby causing a high angle-of-attack and flanging. Also, the IRWs of the center truck do not pro- mote self-steering through the curve, increasing the angle-of-attack and flange forces. This condition leads to increased flange wear, gauge face wear, stick/slip noise, and the potential for derailment at curves and special trackwork. Wheel life of the low-floor center truck can be significantly less than that of motored trucks. Research was needed to better understand the performance of the center trucks of LFLRVs, compile lessons learned to date, and provide guidance to transit agencies and light-rail vehi- cle (LRV) manufacturers on how to mitigate performance problems. Under TCRP Project C-16, Interfleet Technology was asked to develop guidance to transit agencies and LFLRV manufacturers for mitigating the issues associated with the design and operation of unpowered center trucks on a three-section, articulated vehicle body with the cen- ter section fixed to a center truck with IRWs. To accomplish the project objective, the research team reviewed relevant domestic and international literature; collected design and performance data from transit systems operating LFLRVs and their vehicle manufacturers; and identified the factors that can contribute to events such as derailments, excessive noise, excessive wheel and rail wear, and reduced ride quality (e.g., hunting and excessive curving). Based on these factors, the research team conducted extensive computer modeling using ADAMS/Rail for various LFLRV and track infrastructure combinations. As a result of these analyses, the research team developed guidance related to vehicle and infrastructure design and maintenance.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Background and Research Objectives 2 1.2 Research Activity 2 1.3 Worldwide LFLRV Developments 3 1.4 Potential Issues 4 1.5 Organization of the Report 4 1.6 Dimensions 6 Chapter 2 LFLRV Technology and Applications 6 2.1 Conceptual Development 9 2.2 Product Development 11 2.3 Application in the United States 20 2.4 Summary of Experience 21 2.5 European Experience with This Type of Vehicle 21 2.6 Trends 23 Chapter 3 Performance Issues and Causes 23 3.1 Overview 23 3.2 Derailment 24 3.3 Excessive Wheel and Rail Wear 25 3.4 Noise 26 3.5 Reduced Ride Quality 26 3.6 Contributing Factors 35 Chapter 4 Guidance 35 4.1 Purpose and Structure 36 4.2 Performance Issues Addressed by the Guidance 36 4.3 Fundamental Guidance 37 4.4 Vehicle Specifications 40 4.5 Vehicle Selection Issues 40 4.6 Vehicle Maintenance Guidelines 42 4.7 Vehicle Modification 42 4.8 Future Vehicle Design 43 4.9 Infrastructure Guidelines 45 4.10 Operation of LFLRVs 45 4.11 Infrastructure Maintenance Standards 47 4.12 Infrastructure Modification 47 4.13 Best Practice for System Design 49 Chapter 5 Recommendations for Further Research 50 Chapter 6 Conclusions 51 References

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52 Appendix A TCRP Research Project C-16 Scope of Work 65 Appendix B Glossary 67 Appendix C Vehicle Data 68 Appendix D Track Data and Standards Applicable to the Transit Systems Studied 69 Appendix E Track Maintenance Standards 72 Appendix F Bibliography