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24 consulted on the impact of this development on the exist- The transit agency's unique position within the Metropol- ing transit service. As a result, existing bus stops were itan Council is also a successful strategy to integrate bus tran- relocated. sit service with land development planning. As part of the overall planning process, the Metropolitan Council reviews all Environmental Assessment Worksheets, rezoning City Bella requests, and amendments to the Comprehensive Plan that are required for new developments. Planning staff reviews these The City Bella development in the city of Richfield incor- to ensure that they comply with regional policy, and transit porates high-density residential housing units, 18,000 staff reviews them to provide comments related to transit. square feet of commercial space, an underground parking This affords the transit staff the opportunity to review devel- garage, a surface parking lot behind the building, and a one- opment plans early in the development planning process. acre park. The city of Richfield understood the relationship between transit and high-density developments and brought Metro Transit into the discussions early in the planning GO BOULDER process. This infill development is built on an existing tran- sit line and the existing bus stops were relocated to better GO Boulder is a division within the city of Boulder Trans- serve the area. In addition, the development of City Bella portation Department in Boulder, Colorado. GO Boulder is coincided with the execution of a sector study by Metro responsible for the development of alternative transportation Transit. A sector study is a comprehensive operational programs to improve the mobility of residents, employees, analysis of transit service within one of nine sectors and is and visitors within the city of Boulder. GO Boulder devel- conducted in partnership with the local governmental enti- oped the innovative Community Transit Network (CTN), ties. As a result of the sector study, Metro Transit improved which is comprised of high-frequency bus routes with fun the level of service along Lyndale serving the City Bella names like HOP, SKIP, and JUMP. In addition to continuing development. the development of new bus routes for the CTN, GO Boul- der plans expansions to the extensive system of off-street bicycle paths, pedestrian paths, and underpasses in the city Successful Strategies of Boulder. Metro Transit noted that one of its most successful strategies GO Boulder's service area includes the city of Boulder, is communication networks with local governments. Out- which has a population of approximately 100,000. The Uni- reach to the local municipalities is time-consuming; however, versity of Colorado contributes another 28,000 students to coordination becomes easier over time as communication net- the population. GO Boulder does not directly operate tran- works and relationships are formed. The eventual pay-off is a sit service. The CTN is operated by the Regional Trans- high level of cooperation among stakeholders over transit portation District (RTD) headquartered in Denver, except improvement needs. for the HOP service, which is operated by a private contrac- tor. The city of Boulder subsidizes the cost of CTN service A second successful strategy is the legislative mandate for a that is over and above the service levels acceptable by RTD coordinated Comprehensive Plan. The Metropolitan Council service standards. coordinates the comprehensive planning process, which pro- vides clear goals for the region. The 2030 Regional Develop- ment Framework includes a Transportation Policy Plan, a Successful Projects Water Resources Management Policy Plan, and a Parks Policy Plan. The Metropolitan Land Planning Act of 1976 requires Twenty Ninth Street Development local governments in the seven-county MinneapolisSt. Paul area to develop local comprehensive plans. The local plans The Twenty Ninth Street Development is the site of the for- must be consistent with the Metropolitan Council regional plan. mer enclosed Crossroads Mall. The new development, As part of the planning process, the Metropolitan Council pre- scheduled to open in fall 2006, will be an open air mall offer- pares "system statements" for each community in the seven- ing 850,000 square feet of shops, restaurants, and entertain- county area. Preparation of system statements is intended to ment venues. The development will be separated into four help communities prepare or update their local comprehensive distinct neighborhoods connected by streets, walkways, and plans, and informs local officials on how their community is plazas, as shown in Figure 11. The street plan includes a new affected by the Council's regional system plans. Local com- 29th Street and extensions of Canyon and Walnut streets that munities submit their local comprehensive plans for Council will better connect the site with the rest of Boulder. review at least once every 10 years. At the same time, the local government's Capital Improvement Program and local con- Transit was considered very early in the development's trols, such as zoning ordinances, must be reviewed for consis- design. Transit amenities incorporated into the development tency with the comprehensive plan. This process ensures that include new bus stops along 29th Street, which runs east and all plans in the region conform to the same overall goals and are west through the center of the development, a "super stop" at compatible with one another. 28th and Arapahoe with a queue jumper lane, and a HOP stop

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25 FIGURE 11 Drawing of proposed Twenty Ninth Street Development. (Courtesy: Macerich Company.) at 29th and Canyon. More than 175 spaces will be provided quarter-mile walk of bus service, and all households receive for bicycles. The development will also incorporate special neighborhood Eco Passes, a discounted annual bus pass that parking spaces for alternative fuel vehicles as well as pre- allows unlimited travel on RTD local, regional, express, and ferred parking for van and carpools. light-rail routes. Boulder Transit Village Successful Strategies To the northeast of the Twenty Ninth Street Development is GO Boulder is not a transit agency, but a city department that the Boulder Transit Village, a planned joint development is included as a case study because it provides an example of between the city of Boulder and RTD. The development is city government that directly supports transit through its currently in the planning and public involvement phase. As policies, which encourage the use of transit and other alter- currently envisioned, the development will become the trans- native travel modes. City policies regarding zoning, open portation hub for the immediate area. The development will space, and parking management all contribute to an environ- include a bus transit center, a small parking structure, and ment that is transit-supportive. In addition, the existence of space for a future FasTracks rail station. The rest of the land will be developed as high-density residential with under- ground parking. Holiday Neighborhood The Holiday Neighborhood is a mixed-use, mixed-income development that incorporates many of the principles of new urban design (see Figure 12). In addition to the 330 homes for sale and rent, the neighborhood includes a two-acre park, a community garden, shops, restaurants, offices, and artist studios. The development was begun in 1998 when Boulder Housing Partners, the housing authority for the city of Boul- der, acquired the 27-acre site of the former Holiday drive-in theater in north Boulder. The first residents started moving into the development in February 2004, and the develop- ment was scheduled to be completed in the spring of 2006. FIGURE 12 Holiday Neighborhood street. (Courtesy: City Most residences within the development are within a one- of Boulder.)

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26 GO Boulder within the city's organization allows early par- A successful strategy to encourage transit use is parking ticipation by transit in the planning for new developments. management. In downtown Boulder, most on-street parking GO Boulder promotes communication with RTD and other meters are 3-h meters. This discourages the use of on-street stakeholders to encourage partnerships and improve the tran- parking by downtown employees and provides short-term sit environment. parking for shoppers. Boulder also offers downtown employ- ees an incentive to take transit to work by offering them an The zoning within Boulder encourages mixed-use Eco Pass. Revenue from the downtown parking meters is development, which in turn encourages the use of alterna- used to fund transit passes for downtown employees. Boul- tive modes, including transit. The city has six mixed-use der's downtown Eco Pass encourages transit ridership and zoning districts. Since they were created, new develop- provides commuter benefits to more than 8,000 employees. ments in Boulder are now more traditional mixed-use developments with multiple stories. The city is gradually Parking management is also employed on the Colorado becoming new urbanist in character, especially on the University campus. All parking on campus is paid parking. western side of the city. This encourages the use of transit and other alternative modes by the university population. In addition, students, Boulder citizens have historically valued open space for faculty, and staff can receive Eco Passes for free, unlimited the beauty of mountain vistas and the preservation of natural use of the bus system. resources. In 1967, Boulder citizens voted for a sales tax of 0.4% to acquire, manage, and maintain open space. An addi- Another successful strategy is the funding of CTN bus tional 0.33% was added in 1989. Today, more than 43,000 routes by the city of Boulder, Colorado University, and RTD. acres of land have been preserved to create a buffer between RTD supports the operating costs of each route up to the ser- Boulder and neighboring communities and to preserve nat- vice levels contained in their service standards. In addition, ural areas and resources. RTD secured federal funds for initial pilot demonstration projects on most of the CTN bus routes. Colorado University Boulder's open space program limits the amount of land subsidizes a portion of the operating costs for the HOP and available for development. This encourages higher-density STAMPEDE bus routes. In addition, the city of Boulder sub- developments capable of supporting high-frequency bus tran- sidizes the cost of CTN service that is over and above the sit service. With less land available for development, transit service levels acceptable by RTD service standards. This interests become a louder voice in the planning process. The partnership support of the CTN allows for higher service lev- higher-density land use requires the provision of transit service els than would normally be available. This provides a more to alleviate congestion caused by an automobile-dominated attractive service, which should draw more customers and environment. increase bus ridership.