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32 facility design and provided funding for the construction. Construction management was conducted by UPS's Engi- neering Department which allowed the project to quickly move forward. The Pace/UPS partnership provides a bus ter- minal facility that improves bus operations and encourages transit use at this large employment site. FUNDING STRATEGIES Funding for the integration of bus transit service and land development can be found in a variety of sources. Two types of funding are generally needed: funding to build the physi- FIGURE 16 Transit facility serves the Overlake (Washington State) housing development (Courtesy: The Allied Group, Inc., cal facilities in the development and funding to support the Renton, Washington.) operation of desired bus service improvements. The possible funding sources discussed here include developer support, municipal support, planning funds, tax increment financing, commuters. The site includes a day care facility and is an and land incentives. active transit transfer facility. Subsidized bus passes are pro- vided to residents as an incentive to ride the bus and help reduce automobile congestion in the region. King County Developer Support Metro retains ownership of the park and ride lot, receives air rights lease payments from the developer, and will own the The most obvious funding source is to look to the developer entire development after 50 years. King County has completed to provide transit facilities within the development as part of two other TOD projects and has several others in development. the project construction costs. The developer is sometimes King County uses a variety of means to implement TOD proj- willing to provide transit facilities in instances where the pro- ects, including outright sale of parking lots with the proceeds vision of transit elements offsets the cost of roadway impact used to build spaces in the TOD development and the long- fees. In some areas, the roadway improvements that are term lease of parking in mixed-use facilities. required as a result of a new development are paid for by the developer. Adding lanes or improving signalization can be very expensive, and it is often less expensive to encourage Creating Relationships with Developers the use of transit to the development. and Building Owners In addition to the provision of transit facilities within new Developers and building owners associate with lenders, con- developments, transit agencies can partner with developers sultants, construction engineers, and real estate managers. or building owners to subsidize the operation of new or These decision makers, who can influence the design and revised bus service. LYNX has successfully persuaded form of developments, typically do not interact with transit developers to fund the operating costs of new bus service for officials. As a result, developers and building owners are not up to 2 years. For many transit agencies it is more difficult to acquainted with transit interests, and transit provisions in fund the operating costs of new bus routes than to obtain cap- new developments are not at the top of their agenda. To par- ital costs for shelters, benches, etc. Obtaining the start-up tially remedy this unfamiliarity with transit, transit staff costs of a new, unproven route ensures that the service will could consider attending meetings, conferences, and other be provided at least for the first 2 years. After that time, the events that are attended by business leaders, developers, and transit agency can determine if the route will meet perfor- elected officials. Staff could volunteer to give presentations mance goals. that highlight the benefits of transit to new developments. Providing new ideas and a fresh perspective can raise aware- In addition to the transit terminal on its property noted ness, generate interest, and build new relationships. previously, UPS actively supports transit to the facility by subsidizing several bus routes. These routes are designed to connect low-to-moderate income neighborhoods with direct Building Partnerships service to UPS for all shift changes. Building partnerships with building owners is also a suc- cessful strategy for integrating bus service into new devel- Municipal Support opments. For example, Pace Suburban Bus in the Chicago, Illinois, region has partnered with United Parcel Service Good communication and cooperation between local gov- (UPS) in Hodgkins, Illinois, to provide a transit facility ernments and the transit agency can result in special funding within the UPS parking lot. Pace consulted with UPS on the made available through parking fees or other municipal