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37 opers and local jurisdictions on transit operating and facility existence of their guidelines. With widespread use of the requirements." Most of the purpose statements included Internet, all transit agencies now have their own websites. developers as their target audience and wanted to provide Publication of the guidelines on the website would be a sim- information that would improve the transit environment. The ple and inexpensive method of distributing the information responses can be summarized into the following elements: contained in the guidelines. Many local government websites have pages to explain the permitting and zoning processes in Provide specific design guidance to developers and their areas. Links between the local government website and jurisdictions, the transit agency website would increase the outreach. Ensure that transit elements are built to appropriate specifications, DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTICS Ensure adequate access to transit, INCLUDED IN GUIDELINES Streamline the development process, and Make all stakeholders aware of the opportunities tran- Development characteristics include items that affect not sit provides. only the look and feel of a project, but also the innate ability of the project to support transit service. Characteristics such The stated purposes within the guidelines themselves are, as site planning, land use, density, street pattern, sidewalks, of course, much longer but the message remains the same. For open space, building design, parking, pedestrian amenities, example, the LYNX Central Florida Mobility Design Man- security, ADA elements, and directness of pedestrian path ual states that: "This manual is a definitive statement of the are considered development characteristics. This list of char- actions needed to successfully integrate the physical design of acteristics was presented in the survey and transit agencies independent projects into comprehensive sustainable com- were asked to identify those characteristics that are included munities that are served by a balanced transportation system." in their guidelines. Another example, from Pace, the Suburban Bus Division The discussion of development characteristics included in the Chicago area, states that their Development Guidelines in the agency guidelines echo the literature on TOD, New were prepared "to encourage the coordination of real estate Urbanism, and Urban Villages. The concepts of pedestrian development and transit service." And furthermore, that the scale, quality environments, pedestrian mobility, and bicy- "recommendations in this manual are designed to help cle paths are common in both. Transit is dependent on a municipalities and the development community accommo- diverse and lively environment to provide transit riders in date transit service in their development plans." sufficient numbers to enable cost-effective provision of ser- vice. The goals of transit planners and TOD proponents often coincide. DISTRIBUTION OF GUIDELINES The following discussion highlights some of the develop- It is unclear from the survey responses how often guidelines ment characteristics discussed in the guidelines provided by are actually used by stakeholders outside of the transit the survey participants. agency. In Florida, the larger developments are subject to a regional review mandated by the state, and the guidelines are Density is clearly one of the major determinants of required reading for developers when planning those large successful transit provision. A good example of a density dis- developments. King County Metro in Seattle and TriMet in cussion is found in VTA's Community Design & Trans- Portland noted that developers will receive the guidelines portation Manual (see Figure 17). VTA cites best practices when required as part of the permitting process. For other for the various aspects of integrating transportation and land transit agencies it is not clear how often the guidelines are use, and provides four best practices related to density: "Put transmitted to developers. Based on the survey responses, it density where it belongs," "Build to planned densities," is apparent that the distribution of guidelines to stakeholders "Consider design with density," and "Match densities to outside of the transit agency can be improved. transportation resources." VTA's document also includes an appendix devoted to development density. The appendix pre- Eight of the nine transit agencies that have produced sents recommendations on minimum and average building guidelines make them available as a printed document. The densities for various land uses. exception is King County Metro, and their guidelines are available on-line. Also available on-line are the documents Building orientation and/or design is addressed in the produced by Pace Suburban Bus, LYNX, and Cleveland guidelines from LYNX, CTA, VTA, Pace, and Cleveland RTA. See Appendix C for links to the on-line versions. VTA RTA. All recommend that buildings front onto the main in San Jose, California, has a PowerPoint version of their street to provide a better pedestrian environment and reduce guidelines available, and LYNX includes its guidelines in walking distances for transit customers. LYNX also adds an several planning documents including the Transit Develop- alternative suggestion to front at least part of the building on ment Plan. Transit agencies could do more to publicize the the street (see Figure 18).

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38 FIGURE 17 Minimum and average building density recommendations. (Courtesy: Valley Transportation Authority, Santa Clara, California.) Directness of pedestrian path is clearly a topic that most agencies include a discussion of this element in their all transit agencies appreciate as a critical element in the guidelines. CTA's guidelines recommend the creation of successful provision of transit service. Many transit agen- shortcuts through long blocks and across corner parks. The cies reported that their areas were severely lacking in this guidelines note that "pedestrians seek the most direct route critical area. Disjointed developments, decorative fences, and are discouraged by circuitous pathways." VTA's guide- and severe changes in grade prohibit direct pedestrian lines recommend the creation of "a continuous pedestrian paths. These are often greater deterrents to pedestrian traffic network that connects buildings to each other and to transit than a lack of sidewalks. It is therefore not surprising that facilities." Closely related to the directness of pedestrian paths is the presence of sidewalks. Many suburban developments have been built so that pedestrians must walk in the road with the automobile traffic. This is true for all types of developments--residential, industrial, and commercial. Commercial big box retailers recently started to move from traditional suburban environments into the urban environment. The typical big box development set within an urban area with good pedestrian access provides a visual contrast of the worst and the best in providing pedestrian pathways. The guidelines provided by survey respondents indi- cated that transit agencies recognized the need to provide FIGURE 18 Front buildings onto streets. (Courtesy: LYNX good pedestrian sidewalks. King County Metro in Seattle Central Florida Transportation recommends a good durable sidewalk pavement that pro- Authority.) vides adequate traction to reduce slips and falls. LYNX

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39 FIGURE 19 Clearly delineated pedestrian paths through parking lots. (Courtesy: LYNX Central Florida Transportation Authority.) FIGURE 20 Faade architecture provides shelter. adds that a clearly delineated pedestrian path through park- (Courtesy: LYNX Central Florida Transportation Authority.) ing lots is required to safely accommodate pedestrian activ- ity (see Figure 19). customers; however, the surrounding area will overshadow the VTA's Pedestrian Technical Guidelines is a textbook that bus stop "oasis." Cleveland's guidelines note that the quality addresses all aspects of the pedestrian environment. It pro- of the surrounding area is just as important as the quality of the vides guidance on how to plan for pedestrians and discusses transit waiting environment itself (see Figure 21). pedestrian interaction with multiuse streets, street crossings, access to transit, site design, and building design. It is a use- Landscaping is included in some of the transit agency ful reference for communities that are interested in improv- development guidelines to address a multitude of various ing their pedestrian environment. issues. It is recommended as a buffer to protect pedestrians from street traffic, because the buffer gives pedestrians a In Florida, where the average summer temperature is feeling of comfort and protection. Landscaping also provides 94F and the average annual rainfall is 48 in., the provision shade for pedestrians while walking and while waiting for a of shelter for pedestrian circulation is an important feature bus. The judicious choice of trees, shrubs, and flowers for new developments and for redevelopment projects. The improves the appearance of an area and creates a pleasing LYNX guidelines recommend the integration of awnings, environment. Landscaping is also used to shield parking lots arcades, and shelters into the faade architecture to provide and blank walls from view. The use of trees to shade vehicles shelter for pedestrians from the sun and rain (see Figure 20). in park and ride lots is also noted in the guidelines. Pedestrians in all parts of the country could benefit from this simple provision. Although landscaping has many virtues, it must be properly chosen, placed, and maintained. Plants must be appropriate to The Cleveland RTA guidelines address the pedestrian the use envisioned and must be of the appropriate size. Land- experience and the impact that the surrounding development scaping should not interfere with bus boarding and alighting. has on the quality of the waiting environment. A well-designed Regular maintenance is needed to reduce interference with bus stop located in a dreary area may be a comfort for waiting pedestrians and passing vehicles. Overgrown shrubs encroach