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4 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW This synthesis provides insight into the relationship between BUS TRANSIT AND LAND bus transit planning and land development planning. A liter- DEVELOPMENT PLANNING ature review was undertaken to determine the current state of the practice and was conducted using a variety of sources. An A study of transit-supportive development by Robert Cervero on-line search of TRIS was done that yielded many source (1993) focused on development experiences in the suburbs of documents. Additional searches were conducted using other large metropolitan U.S. cities where bus transit service on-line databases; these included the Mineta Transportation predominates. The study examined how recent market and Institute, The Brookings Institution, and Northwestern Uni- regulatory factors have influenced transit-supportive design. versity. Internet searches also found several state and local It found few significant examples of transit-supportive sub- government websites that contain interesting and pertinent urban projects. information. The study effort also included a review of transit design The literature review revealed that there are very few guidelines. The author surveyed 165 transit properties and traditional research documents available on the specific found that 26 had guidelines in place and an additional topic of coordinating bus transit planning and land devel- 12 agencies were in the process of developing guidelines. The opment planning. There is a large body of research on report includes a short section on the preparation of guidelines transit-oriented development (TOD), joint development, and provides a section on "Good Practices" in the develop- urban villages, and new towns. This literature is primarily ment of guidelines. Cervero concluded that the guidelines are focused on development at rail stations, with very little a useful promotional and marketing tool. The production of written specifically for bus service. There are however guidelines positively raises awareness of transit-supportive applications of this research that can be transferred to bus development and is helpful to local planning agencies in transit and these applications are discussed in the report reviewing development proposals. However, transit officials when appropriate. responding to Cervero's survey were unable to identify many development projects that could be classified as transit- In addition to a general search of the relationship between friendly in their design. bus transit and land development planning, the literature review also investigated two specific aspects of this synthe- Much has been written on the subject of TOD, joint devel- sis effort: transit-supportive regulations and measures of suc- opment, new towns, and urban villages. There is excitement in cess. However, there are few documents available on either many planning circles over the potential of these types of devel- of these topics. Some literature is available on regulations to opment to improve the overall quality of life by helping to man- reinforce transit-supportive development. For the most part, age congestion and improve air quality, among other benefits. these regulations were written with rail transit in mind, The literature on these types of developments is overwhelm- although in some cases the regulations can be applied to bus ingly associated with rail service. There are several reasons for service. There is a minimal amount of information available this bias towards rail service. Rail service is perceived as being on how to measure the success of various transit-supportive more "permanent" than bus service, because buses can gener- actions. These two topics are discussed further later in this ally be easily rerouted. Rail is also perceived as having a higher chapter and in the body of the report. level of service and therefore is more competitive with the automobile. Lastly, rail service attracts and supports higher The Bibliography at the end of this report and the refer- densities of development than typical bus service. As bus rapid ences throughout this document include reports, books, and transit (BRT) systems increase in number, perhaps more exam- articles that can be applied to bus service, although many ples of TOD for BRT will be documented. Until then, although were written with rail service in mind. Also included in the existing literature does have some application to bus systems to Bibliography are websites that provide useful and relevant identify good planning practices and regulatory solutions, there information. The remainder of this chapter reviews the is very little literature directly relevant to bus-based TOD. literature in three subject areas: Bus Transit and Land Devel- opment Planning, Transit-Supportive Regulations, and Mea- A good example of TOD research in the literature is TCRP surements of Success. Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development in the United