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40 FIGURE 21 A mix of land uses and landscaping provide an interesting pedestrian environment. (Courtesy: Mary Kay Christopher.) on sidewalks and low-hanging branches can hit pedestrians. For a good, brief synopsis on landscaping see VTA's Pedes- trian Technical Guidelines. A good integrated street network is a basic requirement for an efficient transit system (see Figure 22). CTA's guide- lines note that a direct and interconnected street network pro- vides for regularly spaced and direct connections to transit. LYNX recommends that new developments should provide street connections in all major directions and connect to the existing street network. In places where new developments abut areas that are not yet developed, the use of interim stub- outs to identify where streets will connect in the future is rec- ommended. VTA observes that streets are not just the means FIGURE 22 Curvilinear versus grid street networks. (Courtesy: to transport vehicles, pedestrians, transit riders, and bicycles. Valley Transportation Authority.) Streets are also places in their own right where children play and where neighbors gather. Streets are the largest single source of public space in urban areas, and planners must bal- big is a bus, how much does it weigh, and what is the turning ance the street's transport role with its role as land use. radius? These are basic questions that must be answered if a single bus stop is to be accommodated in a development (see Figure 23). However, additional information can be given to SPECIFICATIONS INCLUDED IN GUIDELINES developers whether they request it or not. For example, that buses have both a front door and a rear door may escape their Specifications include the physical dimensions of transit notice. Landing pads should be provided for both doors and equipment and facilities, and the overall requirements of these unobstructed access to both doors is needed. Although devel- transit elements. Technical specifications provide straight- opers are familiar with general ADA requirements, the ADA forward, quantitative information that involves very little pol- implications of providing transit within their development icy or planning involvement. Engineering drawings of the should be pointed out. Developers also need to learn that the various transit elements provide a clear picture of what is stop must be longer than the length of a bus to provide for needed. This information is readily available within the tran- pull-in and pull-out space; therefore, appropriate stop length sit agency and is generally easy to provide when requested. must be supplied. Specifications for amenities required by the transit agency should be provided. These are likely to include Bus vehicle specifications are typically the guidelines that specifications for informational signage and may include developers will request when considering transit needs. How specifications for shelters, benches, and trash receptacles. The

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41 FIGURE 23 Bus turning template. (Courtesy: LYNX Central Florida Transportation Authority.) expected volume of passengers at the development is helpful The likely layover time should be provided, as well as the max- to lay out a properly sized waiting area and provide an appro- imum number of buses in the terminal at one time. The transit priate number of amenities. This type of information is also agency should be in a position to provide guidance on the type helpful to convince the developer that the expense is justified. of terminal that is desired (sawtooth, pull-through bays, etc.) and have specifications available for each type (see Figure 24). Beyond the simplest provisions associated with a single bus stop, a development that will include more complex transit The provision of additional specifications on sidewalk facilities will require the provision of additional specifications. width, roadway width, and roadway paving provides the If the development will house a bus terminal, then the developer developer with the benefit of the transit agency's experience will need to be aware of bus operator needs for a washroom. on what works best. VTA points out that a typical, 4-ft FIGURE 24 Detail of sawtooth bus stop. (Courtesy: Pace.)

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42 FIGURE 25 Criteria for the provision of bus stop amenities. (Courtesy: Lane Transit District.) sidewalk is inadequate for any foot traffic beyond one Requirements that are unique to an agency's operating pedestrian. This is especially true if street furniture such as environment. King County Metro, for example, provides light poles or utility boxes are also provided within the con- technical information on the trolley overhead system fines of the pedestrian sidewalk. employed by its fleet of trolley buses. Its guidelines also include provisions for other nontypical facilities such as Additional specifications and technical details provided high-occupancy vehicle lanes and motorbike parking. by transit agencies in their guidelines include: Specific criteria to guide the provision of transit elements (see Figure 25). Lane Transit in Eugene, Oregon, for A concrete pad at bus stops. Asphalt pavement is often example, sets criteria for the provision of transit ameni- inadequate at bus stops with heavy bus traffic. Hard ties based on the number of average peak-hour traffic braking by many vehicles over time will cause asphalt trips. Pace and TriMet provide guidelines for bus stop to slide and form mounds and gulleys. spacing based on population and/or employment density.