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5 States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects (Cervero et al. do not enjoy such attention in the normal day-to-day opera- 2004). This report provides a good overview of TOD and its tion of bus transit systems. current state of the practice in the United States. The majority of the projects discussed are centered on train stations. How- The literature provided mixed assessments on the success ever, the study also reviewed bus transit TOD projects in Boul- of TOD, joint development, new towns, and urban villages der, Colorado; Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado; Los Angeles, to produce the benefits associated with improved quality of California; and City Heights in San Diego, California. life. Much of this is attributable to the difficulties associated with measuring these benefits. Still, given the recent interest In Los Angeles, development activity has centered on rail- in station-based TOD and the many projects that have been oriented TOD projects. However, future Metro Rapid BRT constructed since the mid-1990s, a stronger track record of projects have the potential to generate development activity. success would be expected. If rail service has not yet pro- Cervero et al. observed a lack of new TOD development duced a compelling record, then the ability of bus transit to along existing BRT lines and provided the following factors produce quality-of-life benefits will likely be harder to prove. to explain why development was lagging: Additional research is needed to produce valid measure- ments of success for transit-supportive land uses. Owing to lower ridership levels, BRT systems are less attractive to developers than rail systems. Developers and investors do not view BRT systems as TRANSIT-SUPPORTIVE REGULATIONS permanent because they do not require a high capital investment in facilities--inadequate public investment Regulations involving land development are written by state seemingly discourages private investment. and local governments to guide land use and comply with Metro Rapid BRT was originally envisioned to serve written policies and plans. Some states have implemented already densely developed corridors and, as a result, regulations requiring developments to comply with local vacant land for new development along these corridors comprehensive plans. In most areas, local governments are is unavailable. responsible for the structure of land use. Zoning is the most common form of implementing local policies and meeting Transit agencies contemplating BRT systems should con- local goals. sider these issues early in the planning process. Such issues indicate that it may be difficult to persuade building owners TriMet (Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District and developers along the corridor to incorporate amenities of Oregon) in Portland, Oregon, produced the report, Plan- for BRT. ning and Design for Transit Handbook (1993) that, although written for the Portland area, lays out general possibilities Bus TOD projects in the remaining three areas--Boulder, associated with transit-supportive zoning. Chapter five of Roaring Fork Valley, and San Diego--are the result of pres- that report focuses on how transit-supportive development sures from existing land use, geography and social econom- concepts can be implemented through comprehensive plan- ics. Bus transit did not have a formative role in these TOD ning and zoning. This narrative is supplemented and sup- developments. In Boulder, the open space program and the ported by an appendix, which provides "model regulations" local government's proactive stance toward compact devel- for local governments to use when developing local devel- opment has positively influenced the formation of TOD proj- opment codes and zoning ordinances. The model regulations ects. The creation of Boulder's unique transit system, the are organized as follows: Community Transit Network, is an indirect outcome of the area's growth management policies. In Roaring Fork Valley, Transit Corridor Overlay District geography and land use combined with increasing congestion ModerateHigh Density Pedestrian Overlay District generated a compelling need for transit service. With only one LowModerate Density Pedestrian Overlay District way in and out of the valley (State Highway 82), severe con- Specific Plan District for Transit Supportive Development gestion and high travel times have become commonplace. In Urban Planned Unit Developments an attempt to solve these problems, local governments are Supplemental Development Standards for Transit adopting policies to support transit, in some cases in the form Supportive Development of operating and capital assistance. In City Heights, San Use Classifications Diego, the impetus behind the effort was economic redevel- Definitions. opment. The City Heights Urban Village development is served by three bus routes that connect the development to Similar to the TriMet report, the American Planning Asso- downtown San Diego and job opportunities to the north. In all ciation has published Creating Transit-Supportive Land-Use three of the bus TOD projects, bus transit was the obvious and Regulations (Morris 1996). The purpose of this report is to most reasonable solution to existing problems; local decision assist stakeholders in the development process by providing makers sought out transit to alleviate a pressing problem. sample legislative language to implement transit-supportive These situations are not typical and transit agencies generally goals and policies. The book is organized into four chapters