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TABLE A1: Median Time to the Doctorate ITD Field of Doctorate ~ C Chemistry 5.27 6.08 Physics/Astronomy 6.34 7.07 Ear~/Aunosphenc/Marine Sciences 7.24 8.80 Mad/Computer Sciences 6.03 7.89 Engineering 7.09 7~83 Agncultural Sciences 7.52 8.48 Biosciences 6.69 7.98 Heals Sciences 9.64 12.10 Psychology 6.84 9.71 Economics 7.72 8.07 Social Sciences 8.61 11.50 RID Chemistry 4.70 5.39 Physics/Astronomy 5.58 6.30 Earth1Atmospheric/Marine Sciences 5.44 6.94 Math/Computer Sciences 5.11 6.29 Engineering 5.28 5.98 Agricultural Sciences 5.14 6.14 Biosciences 5.47 6.42 Health Sciences 5.60 7.06 Psychology 5.32 7.02 Economics 4.74 6.41 Social Sciences 5.32 8.27 115

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TABLE A2.1: Mean Total Time to the Doctorate (DID), 1967 and 1986 1 967 1 986 Standard Standard Field of Doctorate llV Deviation llV Deviation Total 11 Fields 8.19 4.69 9.84 5.06 Chemistry 6.36 Physics/Astronomy 7.10 Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences 8.73 Math/Computer Sciences 7.15 Engineering 8.39 Agricultural Sciences 8.75 Biosciences 8.34 Health Sciences 10.50 Psychology 8.57 Economics 9.20 Social Sciences 10.59 3.50 3.03 4.22 3.86 4.49 4.31 4.76 5.67 5.20 5.04 6.29 7.20 8.06 9.98 9.27 9.27 9.49 8.99 13.31 10.90 9.54 12.94 3.78 3.65 4.57 4.87 4.88 4.17 4.06 5.92 5.29 5.03 6.05 TABLE A2.2: Mean Time Prior to Graduate Entrance (TPGE), 1967 and 1986 1967 1986 Standard Standard Field of Doctorate TPGE Deviation TPGE Deviation Total 11 Fields 0.85 2.24 0.18 2.44 Chemistry 0.51 Physics/Astronomy 0.34 Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences 0.98 Math/Computer Sciences 0.44 Engineering 0.96 Agricultural Sciences 1.42 Biosciences 0.89 Health Sciences 1.04 Psychology 0.92 Economics 1.03 Social Sciences 1.42 1.70 1.09 2.21 1.37 2.06 2.58 2.22 2.32 2.55 2.33 3.67 0.67 0.50 0.97 0.90 1.03 1.19 1.11 2.08 1.50 1.08 1.54 1.98 1.44 2.09 2.01 2.15 2.03 2.22 3.24 2.79 2.39 3.11 116

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TABLE A2.3: Mean Registered Time to the Doctorate (RTD), 1967 and 1986 1967 1 986 Standard ~Standard Field of Doctorate RTD Deviation RTD Deviation Total 11 Fields 5.63 2.03 7.02 2.52 Chemistry 5.01 1.64 5.83 1.86 Physics/Astronomy .5.90 1.76 6.69 2.09 Eard~/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences 5.72 1.79 7.34 2.30 Ma~1Computer Sciences 5.39 1.75 6.97 2.73 Engineering 5.68 2.06 6.48 2.44 Agricultural Sciences 5.38 1.75 6.57 2.22 Biosciences 5.83 2.03 6.77 2.03 Health Sciences 6.46 2.84 7.34 2.49 Psychology 5.86 2.29 7.48 2.61 Economics 5.11 2.01 7.01 2.76 Social Sciences 5.88 2.44 8.78 3.09 TABLE A2.4: Mean Time Not Enrolled in University TUNEUP, 1967 and 1986 1967 1986 Standard Standard Field of Doctorate TNEU Deviation TNEU Deviation ~. . Total 11 Fields 1.67 3.08 1.59 3.12 Chemistry 0.80 1.91 0.68 1.85 Physics/Astronomy 0.87 1.93 0.77 2.10 Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences 1.98 2.91 1.59 2.82 Math/Computer Sciences 1.17 2.52 1.40 2.86 Engineering 1.74 2.99 1.71 3.15 Agricultural Sciences 1.96 3.22 1.69 2.73 Biosciences 1.58 3.03 1.07 2.41 Health Sciences 2.99 4.38 3.92 4.52 Psychology 1.80 3.23 1.88 3.36 Economics 2.95 3.80 1.45 3.01 Social Sciences 3.22 4.41 2.51 4.22 117

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TABLE A6.2: Unique Variables Model, Mean RID . . Variable ChemistryP&AEAM Math Engrg. Agri. Sci. MARRED -0.026-0.037 (27.21)(94.81) WOMEN 0.049 TEMP AGE 1.516 (12.26) SAMEFLD SUPPED SUPRA SUPPRIV 0.034 (6.21) (7.22) -0.033 (101.94) SUPrA 0.024 0.048 (5.59) (5.68) FORBACC0.033 0.063 0.023 (17.77) (11.15) (7.86) BCARN1ST -0.082 (17.01) PCARN1ST -0.049 (11.47) BTOP20 0.090 (6.64) SDRSAL10 -0.0002 SALRAT1-0.563 (15.42) SALRATIO SEEK -0.867 (5.54) (24.63) DEFIN -0.013 -0.016 (5.73) (4.69) CONSTANT 27.249 10.287 10.-6526.52 9.537 8.238 R2 0.91 0.91 0.890.97 0.93 0.82 F 67.36 63.47 40.82183.78 84.03 30.36 SE 0.07 0.10 0.180.10 0.09 0.16 DW 1.97 2.42 2.121.94 2.33 1.11 NOTES: (1) On critical F values: For 2-variable model, partial F is F(1, 17, .05) 16, .05) = 4.49; overall F is F(3, 16, .05) = 3.24. For 4-variable model, partial F defined in Appendix B. pp. 175-177. 164

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Variable Bio.Sci. Health Psych. Economics Soc.Sci. MARRED WOMEN TEMP AGE SAMEFLD SUPFED SUPRA 0.025 (13.97) SUPPRIV SUPI'A FORBACC BARN1ST PCARN1ST BTOP20 0.0540.2620.0570.172 (13.78)(9.15)(54.69)(90.86) -0.025-0.027 (32.58)(20.61) -0.070 (76.86) 0.066 (11.65) -0.084 (139.26) SDRSAL10-0.0001 -0.0002 -0.0001 (11.33) (10.87) (37.38) SALRAU SALRATIO -0.756 (8.53) SEEK0.023 (10.43 DEFIN CONSTANT6.422 8.5339.9384.9678.134 R2o.g5 0.850.960.950.99 F112.41 36.08146.70134.25951.06 SE0.09 0.190.130.140.08 DW1.38 2.271.881.742.24 = 4.45; overall F is F(29 17, .05) = 3.59. For 3-variable model, partial F is F(19 is F(1, 15, .05) = 4.54; overall F is F(4, 15, .05) = 3.06. (2) Acronyms are 165

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TABLE A7: Linear Common Variables Model, Mean TPGE Variable Chemistry P&A EAM _ Math Engrg. Agn. Sci. WOMEN0.005 0.010 0.001-0.0290.012 -0.006 (0.47) (0.10) (0.03)(2.63)(0.63) (0.17) AGE1.432 0.307 0.2561.8840.522 0.243 (10.99) (1.29) (0.87)(15.18)(10.95) (1.50) SUPPED-0.004 0.006 0.005-0.0030.004 0.006 (1~23) (0.39) (0.37)(0.56)(0.36) (1.27) SUPTA0.016 -0.015 -0.009-0.0120.003 -0.008 (4.98) (0.34) (0.69)(1.52)(0.10) (0.19) SI3PRA0.015 0.005 0.000-0.012-0.009 0.029 (7.72) (0.22) (0.17)(3.64)(1~04) (o.8g) FORBACC-0.013 -0.002 0.0360.0400.005 0.001 (2.40) (0.14) (2.76)(7.09)(0.50) (0.00) BCARN1ST0.002 -0.002 -0.0010.0160.010 -0.006 (0.09) (1.09) (0.01)(4.09)(3.13) (0.27) PCARN1ST-0.001 -0.000 0.0170.0060.004 0.002 (0.25) (0.14) (0.74)(0.lS)(0.16) (0.02) FACULTY0.000 0.000 -0.0000.000-0.000 -0.000 (0.11) (1.12) (0.03)(5.56)(0.05) (1~93) SALRAT10.424 -0.414 0.2721.081-().1U7 t).;51 (2.80) (0.85) (0.32)(6.63)(0.22) (0.84) UNEMP4YR0.015 u.048 u.ua /-U.~:~1-U.~ ^0 ~. (0.44) (0.12) (1.41)(17.46)(2.59) (0.11) ro~-0.009 -u.uuz -us. ~-.-. -rev 1 (0.09) (2~91) (0.31)(B.17)(4.36) (0.52) VAN 1 ^~ 1-32.29 -a .~w -u.~u-~ ~.O ~- 1 a. ~ v - - .~, R20.76 0.89 0.050.940.84 0.52 F5.93 14.02 1.0926.309.04 2.73 SE0.05 0.02 0.160.070.05 0.14 DW2.63 2.66 2.542.282.?9 1.92 NOTES: (1) On critical F values: pp. 175-177 For partial F test, F(1, 7, .05) = 5.59; for 166

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Variable Bio.Sci. Health Psych. Economics Soc.S cf. WOMEN0.0110.020 0.0090.0340.012 (3.82)(2.81) (0.31)(1.63)(1.57) AGE0.5020.524 0.4600.5890.937 (12.61)(10.08) (4.B8)(3.02)(24.99) SUPPEL)0.0020.016 0.0050.0100.010 (0.29)(2.27) (0.92)(0.94)(1.87) SUPIA-0.007-0.014 0.004-0.014-0.031 (0.37)(0.56) (0.24)(0.98)(7.16) SUPRA-0.004-0.036 -0.0090.0020.001 (0.21)(2.54) (2.24)(0.03)(0.02) FORBACC0.014-0.003 -0.004-0.0090.013 (0.40)(0.02) (0.00)(0.16)(0.39) BCARN1ST0.0120.014 0.0060.001-0.017 (1.34)(0.49) (0~18)(0.00)(2.50) PCARN1ST0.0030.001 -0.0080.047-0.017 (0.12)(0.00) (0.60)(3.21)(2.08) FACULTY-0.0000.000 -0.0000.000-0~000 (1.59)(0.85) (0.90)(0.34)(2.17) SALRAT10.1210.521 0.0540.1510.379 (0.31)(1.03) (0.09)(0.07)(2.86) UNEMP4YR-0.0060.002 0.008-0.0520.043 (0.10)(0.00) (0.07)(0.42)(1.68) PERPOP-0.004-0.040 -0.006-0.0030.003 (3.59)(1.56) (0.72)(0.01)(0.34) CONSTANT-10.50-13.03 -8.65-16.51-17.58 R20.930.84 0.970.510.94 F21.769.01 57.182.6424.24 SE0.050.19 0.060.180.07 DW2.463 17 2.131.982.83 - overall F test, F(12, 7, .05) = 3.57. (2) Acronyms are defined in Appendix B, 167

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TABLE A7.1: Log Common Variables Model, Mean TPGE Variable Chemistry P&A EAM Math Engrg. Agri. Sci. WOMEN0.1260.148-0.042-0.041-0.055-0.126 (0.38)(1.48)(0.04)(0.03)(1.11)(1.36) AGE60.39919.3418.32328.37615.0484.413 (15.09)(8.47)(0.97)(3.60)(17.55)(1.08) SllPEL;L)-0.0380.3210.0290.125-0.0190.027 (0.04)(4.74)(0.01)(0.33)(0.05)(0.06) SUPTA2.249-2.704-0.5390.7740.608-0.407 (5.19)(6.46)(0.64)(0.50)(4.72)(1.26) SUPRA-1.6131.7020.012-0.616-0.8322.594 (5.73)(3.29)(0.00)(1.68)(3.61)(1.57) FORBACC-0.139-0.0390.2380.6760.0060.180 (2.37)(0.29)(2.54)(13.87)(0.00)(2.81) BCARN1ST0.135-0.910-0.0430.6320.296-0.501 (0.21)(2.49)(0.00)(0.68)(1.05)(0.75) PCARN1ST0.136-0.7201.190-0.478-0.290-0.135 (0.02)(0.62)(0.423(0.06)(0.18)(0.02) FACULTY-0.2040.5760.264-0.2020.089-0.661 (0.20)(2.00)(0.03)(0.08)(0.06)(0.52) SALRAT11.017-1.2420.1662.570-0.4640.246 (1.97)(6.32)(0.04)(3.92)(1.92)(0.39) UNEMP4YR0.0460.2420.205-0.536-0.023-0.126 (0.31)(8.77)(1.78)(10.92)(0.42)(1.36) PERPOP-0.1410.019-0.022-1.087-0.205-0.401 (0.86)(0.01)(0.00)(5~19)(4.38)(3.14) CONSTANT - 189.57 -58.59 -32.99 -86.93 -45.95 - 11.92 R2 0.75 0.80 0.00 0.92 0.83 0.55 F 5.86 7.27 0.91 19.00 8.55 2.92 SE 0.09 0.08 0.20 0.13 0.05 0.12 DW 2.88 2.26 2.79 2.72 2.50 1.97 NOTES: (1) On critical F values: For partial F test, F(1, 7, .05) = 5.59; for pp. 175-177 168

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VariableBio.Sci.HealthPsych.EconomicsSoc.Sci. WORSEN0.4540.4690.7270.0760.218 (10.55)(4.11)(2.58)(0.04)(0.51) AGE10.7008.91011.00110.97919.050 (11.12)(32.14)(9.16)(1.10)(16.51) SIMPER0.0710.5370.371-0.0110.084 (0.10)(4.13)(3.09)(0.00)(0.06) SUPIA-0.357-0.249-0.092-0.726-1.252 (0.45)(0.60)(0.08)(0.52)(4.06) SUPRA-0.293-0.519-0.1110.331-0.040 (0.82)(3.74)(0.20)(0.30)(0.02) FORBACC0.102-0.0570.1420.0710.113 (1.14)(0.25)(2.10)(0.08)(1.29) BCARN1ST0.3400.2310.6940.056-0.325 (0.68)(0.41)(2.85)(0.00)(0.67) PCARN1ST0.481-0.195-0.5582.359-0.960 (0.64)(0.10)(1.61)(1.82)(1.60) FACULTY-0.784-0.165-1.2341.075-0.152 (4.05)(0.05)(3.46)(0.50)(0.06) SALRAT10.2770.5520.0260.7320.502 (0.42)(1.27)(0~01)(0.57)(1.89) UNEMP4YR-0.081-0.0490.165-0.0910.057 (2.25)(0.17)(5.78)(0.28)(0.54) PERPOP-0.371-0.3480.1950.1480.269 (5.50)(5.34)(0.39)(0.10)(1.61) CONSTANT-24.70-26.37-22.70-57.66-49.44 R20.940.880.980.470.90 F26.4912.3472.372.3915.15 SE0.050.100.050.200.08 DW2.563.121.802.142.71 overall F test, F(12, 7, .05) = 3.57. (2) 169 Acronyms are defined in Appendix B.

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TABLE As: Linear Common Variables Model, Mean INEU Variable Chemistry P&A EAMMath Engrg. Agn. Sci. WOMEN 0.007 -0.023 0.037-0.008 0.050 0.011 (0.20) (0.40) (1~54)(0.02) (0.97) (0.10) AGE 0.106 0.139 -0.2602.458 -0.209 0.682 (0.02) (0.08) (0.35)(2.70) (0.16) (2.03) SUPPED) 0.008 0.007 0.012-0.003 0.012 -0.001 (1.95) (0.98) (0.88)(0.06) (0.36) (0.08) SULFA 0.006 0.000 0.002-0.010 -0.002 -0.019 (0.23) (0.00) (0.01)(0.10) (0.00) (0.18) SUPRA 0.009 -0.000 -0.036-0.018 -0.004 0.055 (0.86) (0.00) (5.44)(0.87) (0.02) (0.54) FORBACC -0.007 -0.009 -0.038-0.017 ().025' ().l)4u (0.22) (0.20) (1.17)(0.14) (1.54) (1.10) BCARN1ST -0.016 -0.006 -0.0240.018 0.006 -0.007 (2.80) (0.11) (LOB)(0.57) (0.10) (0.06) PCARN1ST -0.012 -0.()()2 -().U54-. -~.uun u.u4a (0.64) (0.01) (2.98)(0.00) (0.04) (1.91) PA~UL1 Y -0.000 -~.UUU -U.~Uou.uu ~-~.~uv -u.vu (3.46) (1.34) (2.02)(0.54) (3.21) (0 70) 0.220 -u. ~o -1.~w~ .u - ~ -a. ~ ~ ~I. (0.22) (0.13) (2.01)(1.60) (0.05) (0.10) UNEMP4YR 0.000 0.085 0.04S-0.090 -0.017 -0.005 (0.00) (1.74) (0.14)(0.35) (0.09) (0.00) rawer -0.006 -v.vvv -v.v~~-I. ~.~ . ~ (1.27) (0.53) (o.o5)(1.21) (3.65) (0.41) _~ ~ v-~ ~ ~-1 . 0 5 . . ~ R2 0.65 0.46 0.720.22 0.19 0.49 F 3.95 2.37 5.111.45 1.36 2.51 SE 0.09 0.12 0.260.20 0.16 0.35 DW 2.48 2.21 2.232.25 2.79 1.78 , NOTES: (1) pp. 175-177 - On critical F values: For partial F test, F(1, 7, .05) = 5.59; for 170

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l Variable Bio.Sci. Health Psych. ~W ~ WOMEN0.002 0.020-0.009 -0.002 -0.019 (0.07) (0.45)(0.12) (0.01) (0.30) AGE-0.189 0.8230.766 0.482 0.208 (1.09) (3.88)(5.23) (2.15) (0.10) SUPPED0.021 -0.0200.002 0.001 -0.047 (17.46) (0.52)(0.08) (0.01) (3.43) SUPIA-0.034 0.007-0.005 -0.017 0.045 (4.95) (0.02)(0.12) (1.48) (1.17) SUPRA0.027 -0.072-0.002 0.017 -0.002 (5.84) (1.59)(0.02) (2.02) (0.00) FORBACC0.078 -0.087-0.178 -0.037 -0.162 (8.21) (1.75)(2.73) (2.70) (4.75) BCARN1ST-0.011 -0.062-0.070 0.028 0.001 (0.68) (1.55)(8.84) (1~69) (o.oo) PCARN1ST0.028 0.025-0.040 -0.012 0.052 (6.21) (0.45)(6.53) (0.24) (1.57) FACULTY-0.000 -0.0000.000 -0.000 -0.000 (1.08) (2.66)(0.67) (5.49) (0.70) SALRAT10.173 0.2380.090 -0.208 -0.294 (0.38) (0.03)(0.10) (0.14) (0.14) UNEMP4YR-0.008 0.002-0.111 0.076 0.134 (0.08) (0.00)(5.38) (0.94) (1.30) PERPOP-0.014 -0.155-0.036 -0.001 0.030 (25.33) (3.75)(8.40) (0.00) (2.67) CONSTANT-3.71 -9.53-14.31 -5.55 5.40 R20.96 0.620.92 0.94 0.80 F35.67 3.5718.47 25.23 7.49 SE0.06 0.470.10 0.17 0.26 DW2.83 2.623.17 2.68 2.54 overall F test, F(12, 7, .05) = 3.57. (2) Acronyms are defined in Appendix B. 171

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TABLE A8.1: Log Common Variables Model, Mean TNEU Variable Chemistry P&A EAM Math Engrg. Agri. Sci. WOMEN 0.284 0.004 -0.106 0.103 0.078 -0.154 (1.23) (0.00) (0.44) (0.07) (0.50) (0.75) 19.371 ('0.99) 7.379 (0.46) 1.668 (0.06) 27.834 (1.52) (0.05) 10.425 (2.77) SUPPED0.655 0.578 0.0250.059 0.076-0.221 (6.66) (5.74) (0.01)(0.03) (0.18)(2.00) SUPTA-0.436 -2.216 0.4880.502 0.159-0.350 (0.12) (1.63) (0.87)(0.09) (0.07)(0.43) SUPRA1.808 1.687 -1.079-0.442 -0.1072.208 (4.58) (1.21) (3.91)(0.38) (0.01)(0.53) FORBACC-0.042 0.081 -0.0090.004 0.2910.201 (0.14) (0.46) (0.01)(0.00) (1.44)(1.61) BCARN1ST-0.636 -0.755 -0.5270.645 0.147-0.751 (2.98) (0.64) (0.98)(0.31) (0.06)(0.78) PCARN1ST-0.984 -0.948 -2.490- 1.105 -0.4051.803 (0.70) (0.41) (3.09)(0.13) (0.08)(1.93) FACULTY- 1.609 -0.744 -0.567-0.169 - 1.4430.284 (7.90) (1.24) (0.26)(0.02) (3.40)(0.04) SALRAT1-0.098 -0.247 -1.1641.301 -0.0750.100 (0.01) (0.09) (3~15)(0.44) (0.01)(0.03) UNEMP4YR0.020 0.237 -0.023-0.017 0.074-0.150 (0.04) (3.14) (0.04)(0.01) (0.95)(0.89) PERPOP-0.092 -0.373 -0.303-0.238 -0.0620.117 (0.24) (1.79) (0.50)(0.11) (0.09)(0.12) CONSTANT-41.61 -5.74 19.13-82.49 24.59-48.97 R20.75 0.67 0.710.00 0.090.59 F5.79 4.28 4.940.94 1.163.31 SE0.11 0.12 0.150.19 0.100.18 DW2.94 2.69 2.551.97 2.521.75 NOTES: (1) On critical F values: For partial F test, F(1, 7, .05) = 5.59; for pp. 175-177 172

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VariableBio.Sci. Health ~F WOMEN0.211 0.0920.713 0.159 -0.002 (2.36) (0.06) (0.83) (0.87) (0.00) AGE 3.126 7.531 13.561 4.552 0.896 (0.97) (7.95) (4.69) (0.96) (0.02) SUPPEL) 0.962 -0.404 0.556 0.052 -0.686 (18.25) (0.81) (2.34) (0.11) (2.59) SULFA -0.778 0.034 -0.338 -0.420 0.493 (2.20) (0.00) (0.37) (0.89) (0.38) SUPRA 0.671 -0.555 0.328 0.193 -0.002 (4.43) (1.48) (0.60) (0.52) (o.oo) FORBACC 0.309 -0.280 -0.269 -0.185 -0.149 (10.67) (2.11) (2.55) (2.93) (1.35) BCARN1ST -0.063 -1.028 -0.886 0.689 0.219 (0.02) (2.78) (1.56) (2.83) (0.18) PCARN1ST 1.299 0.513 1.288 -0.346 0.895 (4.80) (0.24) (2.89) (0.20) (0.85) FACULTY -0.625 -0.757 -0.515 - 1.225 -0.381 (2.64) (0.36) (0.20) (3.29) (0.24) SALRAT1 0.045 0.165 -0.117 -0.105 -0.051 (0.01) (0.04) (0.09) (0.06) (0.01) llNEMP4YR 0.044 0.028 -0.034 0.065 0.062 (0.68) (0.02) (0.08) (0.74) (0.39) PERPOP -0.374 -0.485 -0.691 0.164 0.498 (5.72) (3.60) (1.70) (0.64) (3.34) CONSTANT -9.93 -7.07 -39.01 1.64 -2.4() R2 0.96 0.54 0.86 0.93 0.80 F 41.52 2.85 10.43 22.83 7.31 SE 0.05 0.17 0.08 0.09 0.10 DW 2.91 2.57 2.65 2.69 2.55 overall F test, F(12, 7, .05) = 3.57. (2) Acronyms are defined in Appendix B 173

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