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44 Smartcard Interoperability Issues for the Transit Industry The EZ-Link card is based on Sony's Felica card technology. Devices used in the systems include onboard validators, faregates, ticket offices, AVMs, and general ticketing machine (GTMs). The GTM provides written and video instructions available in English, Malay, Man- darin, and Tamil, but no audio instructions. 3.1.11.1 Fare Policies The following fare policies and customer features define the EZ-Link Program: Card Fee--$5 (S) card deposit; Fare Products--e-cash, passes, park-and-ride tickets; Fare Categories--Adult, children, senior, and student; and Other Features--Autoload/auto top-up. 3.1.11.2 Transit Benefits Programs None are available. 3.1.11.3 Loyalty Programs EZ-Link offers both transit and non-transit loyalty programs, including incentives on auto top-up transactions and fast food purchases. Up to 15 loyalty programs can be supported on each card, while the EZ-Link back office can accommodate up to 225 separate loyalty programs. 3.1.12 Oyster The Prestige Project was conceived to improve revenue collection and information manage- ment about journey patterns across the London Transport, now Transport for London (TfL) net- work. On the London Underground, the amount of ticketless travel, estimated to be approximately 45 million annually, needed to be reduced. The solution was to install faregates throughout the system and use smartcard technology to expedite the throughput of passengers. On the bus network, there was need for common ticketing and accounting across a deregulated market of different bus operators and for ensuring a fair apportionment of revenue on "net" con- tracts. Smartcard technology also offered the opportunity to adopt the "cash-less bus" resulting in faster boarding and reduced potential for fraud. In 1998, a 17-year contract was awarded to TranSys--a consortium of companies composed of Electronic Data Systems, Ltd (EDS), Cubic Transportation Systems (CTS), International Comput- ers Limited (ICL), and WS Atkins--to design, develop, deliver, and maintain a transit fare payment smartcard system for the London region. Oyster was introduced in a trial program that began November 2002 with 80,000 ISO Type A MiFare smartcards used by the London Underground and bus employees. In June 2003, a phased rollout began when monthly and annual season pass hold- ers could obtain an Oyster card. In January 2004, Oyster was expanded to include stored value (Pre- Pay) on the London Underground and Docklands Light Railway (DLR). As of October 2004, more than 2.1 million Oyster cards have been issued for fare payment on the following transit providers: London Underground (The Tube)-255 stations; London Bus-8,000 buses; Tramlink light rail; DLR; and National Rail-28 stations. The five transit modes combined serve more than 8.5 million passengers a day. The Oyster- enabled equipment installed throughout the London region includes Faregates, Onboard validators,