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CHAPTER 4 Findings of Key Information to be Exchanged Between Agencies This chapter identifies the key information to be exchanged between public agencies in order to implement an interoperable smartcard-based fare payment system. Using the Interoperabil- ity Model introduced in the Introduction, the subsequent research reviews and analyzes relevant technology standards and specifications and outlines the essential data elements required for two or more smartcard payment systems to exchange data to enable financial settlement for rides between different agencies. The culmination of the policies established between participating agencies are the business rules embedded in the terminals (smartcard read-write devices). As discussed in the Introduction, the business rules allow the proper fare to be deducted from the card and the associated transaction record to be generated and transferred to higher levels in the fare payment system clearinghouse. This chapter identifies the minimum data elements that will be used to generate the informa- tion to be exchanged between the card and card read-writer (terminal), and transferred to the clearinghouse for processing. This chapter consists of the following sections: Industry Interoperability Analysis--Identifies available standards and specifications devel- oped to address interoperability; Description of Required Data Elements--Identifies and describes the data elements required for interoperability; and Gap Analysis--Discusses the differences between the available standards and specifications and the required data elements. 4.1 Industry Interoperability Analysis A detailed literature review of relevant documents was conducted to identify standards and specifications that address interoperability. These standards and specifications have been devel- oped with the same intention as this research effort. In order to conduct the gap analysis, it is important to define the difference between a standard and a specification: Standards are maintained by nationally or internationally recognized governance bodies such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Institute of Electrical and Electron- ics Engineers (IEEE), or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), or by an individual organization such as the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) or Europay, Mastercard, or Visa (EMV). Specifications address industry or very specific user needs that usually augment a standard. The documents reviewed include specifications and standards developed both in the United States and internationally. Particular focus was given to technology, data, and control standards, and interface specifications from the smartcard and transit industries that attempt to address the 51