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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 576 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM TransXML: XML Schemas for Exchange of Transportation Data

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2007 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando VICE CHAIR: Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT, Concord EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT, Austin Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, Washington, DC Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT, Atlanta Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University, St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Thomas J. Barrett (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT John A. Bobo, Jr., Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Carl A. Strock (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of January 2007.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 576 TransXML: XML Schemas for Exchange of Transportation Data Eric Ziering Frances Harrison CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Cambridge, MA AND Paul Scarponcini BENTLEY SYSTEMS, INC. Exton, PA WITH INFO TECH, INC., Gainesville, FL MICHAEL BAKER JR. INC. Moon Township, PA CHARLES E. CAMPBELL Orangevale, CA Subject Areas Planning and Administration Design Highway Operations, Capacity, and Traffic Control Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2007 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 576 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-64 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN-13: 978-0-309-09872-4 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2007921915 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2007 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 576 Robert J. Reilly, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Manager, NCHRP Christopher J. Hedges, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 20-64 PANEL Field of Special Projects Loren Risch, Kansas DOT (Chair) Steven C. Brown, Nebraska DOR Roemer M. Alfelor, FHWA Todd R. Bergland, Minnesota DOT Terry Hale, New York State DOT Maurice Harmon, HNTB Corporation Liang Y. Hsia, Florida DOT David C. Lively, California DOT Sandra B. Salazar, Johns Hopkins University Gregory T. Witt, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet James Pol, FHWA Liaison Representative James Ramsey, AASHTO Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison Representative Ray Krammes, Other Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank the following individuals who provided valuable input and perspectives on transportation data exchange needs during the course of this effort: The NCHRP Project Manager, Christopher Hedges; the members of the NCHRP Project Panel, Jim Ramsey, Loren Risch, Steven Brown, Roemer Alfelor, Todd Bergland, Lyman (Terry) Hale, Maurice Har- mon, Liang Hsia, David Lively, Thomas Rioux, Sandra Salazar, and Gregory Witt; the FHWA liaison, James Pol; the AASHTO liaison, Mary Beth Leaf; Nathan Crews of LandXML; Chuck Conley of AASHTO; Jennifer Whitted of Natek, Inc.; Carl Gonder of Alaska DOT; Michael Griffith of FHWA; Steve Jackson of Idaho DOT; and the many individuals who actively participated in the TransXML community website.

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FOREWORD By Christopher J. Hedges Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report develops a proposed common framework for exchange of transportation data in eXtensible Markup Language, known as TransXML. This framework can be used for developing, validating, disseminating, and extending current and future schemas. The research team conducted an extensive review of current XML efforts in the transportation sector, identified specific gaps and opportunities, and developed a plan to address the high- est priority needs. The team developed a number of pilot schemas and applications, as well as recommendations for tools and platforms that can simplify XML coding for other trans- portation applications. The report summarizes the benefits that can be achieved by the adoption and expansion of TransXML, and outlines future efforts that will be needed to ensure its success. The planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of transportation infrastructure all require exchanging large volumes of data. Until recently, transportation agencies have been hindered by the lack of common data formats that would facilitate the exchange of data across different platforms and applications. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has proven to be a universal structured data-transfer methodology with great potential for the transportation sector. Originally designed to meet the challenges of large- scale electronic publishing, XML is also playing an increasingly important role in the exchange of a wide variety of data on the web and elsewhere. XML data structures, known as schemas, provide a mechanism to develop and adopt common formats for data exchange. The XML schemas that are of interest to AASHTO and its member departments typi- cally support transportation infrastructure-related business processes in local, state, and federal departments of transportation (DOTs) as well as the work of their partners. These schemas are of equal interest to vendors who develop software products to support the transportation industry. There are currently several open consortia of private- and public- sector organizations working to create schemas to support the transportation industry, including LandXML, aecXML, ITS XML, and OpenGIS. For some transportation applica- tions, XML schemas do not yet exist, but their availability would facilitate the exchange of transportation data broadly across multiple business areas in a format independent of the software that produced it. However, there existed no formal mechanism or framework within the transportation community to develop and maintain XML schemas, promote schema consistency and acceptance, solicit broader input, and build consensus. There is a need for development and long-term support of XML schemas for exchange of transportation data that are widely accepted, thoroughly documented, and published on the Internet for access by any organization or individual. The long-term vision is an overall set of XML schemas for transportation applications in a framework to be called TransXML.

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Under NCHRP Project 20-64, a research team led by Cambridge Systematics developed XML schemas in four pilot business areas in the transportation sector: roadway design, construction/materials, bridge structures, and transportation safety. Sample applications were developed for each of the schema to demonstrate their use. Data models were devel- oped for each schema using Unified Modeling Language (UML). Geographic Markup Lan- guage (GML) was used as a consistent framework for XML coding across the four areas. This final report is accompanied by several appendices in electronic format that can be downloaded at http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7338. These include (1) a detailed review of the XML schema and relevant data standards, (2) a summary of an experiment that led to a recommendation to use a common features profile within GML to simplify the generation of XML code, (3) UML models used as the primary design tool for the Trans- XML schemas, and (4) the actual TransXML schemas and applications developed in this project. This project should serve as the beginning of an effort that will become a broad umbrella for a wide variety of interrelated data exchange formats in all areas of transportation data exchange. The success of TransXML will rely on a sustained effort over time by the trans- portation community. Communication must continue among all of the stakeholders involved in business processes that require the exchange of data; those who will be the pri- mary beneficiaries of common data exchange formats.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Section 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Research Context 6 1.2 Research Objectives 6 1.3 Research Approach 7 1.4 Contents of Report 9 Section 2 Surface Transportation Data Exchange Needs 9 2.1 Overview 9 2.2 Roadway Survey/Design 9 2.3 Transportation Construction/Materials 10 2.4 Highway Bridge Structures 10 2.5 Transportation Safety 10 2.6 Broader Framework for TransXML 13 Section 3 Current Practice Review 13 3.1 Overview of Existing Schema and Standards 20 3.2 Screening and Evaluation of Schema and Standards 22 Section 4 Gaps and Opportunities for TransXML 22 4.1 Criteria for Identifying XML Schema Candidates 23 4.2 Roadway Survey/Design 26 4.3 Transportation Construction/Materials 29 4.4 Highway Bridge Structures 30 4.5 Transportation Safety 32 Section 5 TransXML Process and Products 32 5.1 Schema Development Process 32 5.2 Technical Framework for TransXML 35 5.3 Stakeholder Involvement 36 5.4 UML Modeling 37 5.5 GML Encoding and Validation 38 5.6 TransXML Schema and Sample Applications 45 Section 6 Future Stewardship of TransXML 45 6.1 Introduction 45 6.2 Existing Models for XML Stewardship 46 6.3 Lessons Learned 48 6.4 Goals and Mission Statement for the TransXML Project 49 6.5 Function and Roles of a TransXML Stewardship Organization 50 6.6 Criteria for TransXML Stewardship 51 6.7 Recommended Model for TransXML Stewardship 51 6.8 Work Plan for the TransXML Project

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54 Section 7 References 55 Appendices A Through F 56 Appendix G: Additional Feedback on Schemas and UML Models 58 Acronyms