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13 SECTION 3 Current Practice Review This section reviews prior XML schema and data standards for TransXML. The schema and standards efforts reviewed in surface transportation in order to are listed in Table 2 and summarized below. Identify gaps to be addressed in TransXML, Identify XML schema that could be immediately incorpo- Roadway Survey/Design rated into TransXML, LandXML provides at least partial support for the Design Document XML schema and standards that could be incor- Surveys, Parcel/Boundary, Geometric Design, Construction/ porated into future schema development efforts under the Stakeout, Survey Feature Codes, and Cross Section topics TransXML umbrella, and within this business area. LandXML includes specifications Identify independent standards and XML schema develop- for raw and reduced surveying data, surface data, parcel data, ment efforts that TransXML development should be aware and a 3D road model. LandXML also includes a standard for- of and/or coordinate with. mat for official electronic design submission. aecXML sup- ports the Pay Item Quantities topic. Two XML initiatives in 3.1 Overview of Existing Schema the Geotechnical area are relevant to the pavement design and Standards area (though by no means provide complete coverage for that area). The Traffic and ITS design topic is partially addressed There have been a number of efforts, on the part of individ- by the Traffic Software Data Dictionary. ual agencies and vendors and involving consortia of public and private organizations, to develop and use transportation- related XML schemas. While significant progress has been Construction/Materials made, particularly in the area of geographic data, the trans- portation arena is still at a relatively early stage of XML schema The aecXML schema and Trnsport data model address development and adoption. each of the topic areas within the Construction/Materials Transportation data standards, which may evolve or be business area. In addition, XML initiatives sponsored by the incorporated into XML schema, also are of relevance to this American Institute of Steel Construction and the American research effort. Transportation data standards are already Iron and Steel Institute address specific materials. The aecXML being used throughout the industry. Often these standards Infrastructure effort produced a draft schema that addresses are in the form of data dictionaries that contain standard communication of pay items from design to estimation sys- codes for specific events. These standards are useful for tems. This was based on the aecXML common object aggregating data at the state and national levels in order to schema, which provided a broad range of contract, project, make sense of data coming from disparate sources. They and organization elements relevant to construction. The are also essential in organizing and analyzing large volumes AASHTOWare Trnsport suite uses XML schema for exchange of data. of information across its modules related to construction This section provides an overview of standards and XML contracts, project cost estimates and daily work reports. In schema efforts in the four TransXML business areas. In addi- addition, the Trnsport data model includes additional con- tion, the related areas of geographic data and ITS are included tent that could serve as the basis for XML schema in the con- here, since these areas may provide important building blocks struction business area.

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14 Table 2. XML schema and data standards efforts. Developer/ Screening Schema/Standard (Links) Content Participants Results LandXML Focus is the exchange of civil design Derived from earlier Detailed information, including raw and reduced ASCII-based Engineering evaluation www.LandXML.org surveying data, surface data, parcel data, and and Surveying-Exchange 3D road model. Includes standard format for (EAS-E) initiative. official electronic design submission. Most Schema is supported by recent version incorporates mechanisms for over a dozen commercial interoperability with the Federal Highway applications Administration (FHWA) Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM). Includes content of AASHTOWare SDMS. Geographic Markup A comprehensive XML schema for encoding Open Geospatial Detailed Language GML both spatial and nonspatial geographic Consortium (OGC) evaluation information. Feature-centric model, defining http://www.opengeospatial.o abstractions of real-world phenomenon (e.g., rg/specs/ roads) with properties having names, values, and types. Includes Rules for Application Schemas. XGDF XML The ISO TC204 (ITS) GDF standard supports ISO TC204 (Intelligent Detailed location-based services, with a current focus Transportation Systems) evaluation http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/ on car navigation systems. Data model CatalogueDetailPage.Catalogu includes features (e.g., roadway, structures, eDetail?CSNUMBER=30763 and railways), relationships between features, and attributes of features or relationships. Includes roadway features, other transport modes, area features. Focus of attributes is on navigation needs. The next version of GDF is being called XGDF. Work has begun on adding both an SQL and XML encoding. Geospatial One-Stop As part of the National Spatial Data Federal Geographic Data Detailed Infrastructure, the Geospatial One-Stop (GOS) Committee. Modeling evaluation http://www.geo-one- data content standard formalizes how teams had stop.gov/Standards/ geographic information in any of seven representatives from index.html themes can be represented for transfer government, industry, between government agencies. The and academia. The U.S. transportation theme includes modes of road, Department of rail, transit, air, and navigable water. It is Transportation Bureau of their intent to submit this specification to Transportation Statistics ANSI for standardization. The road mode of led the transportation the transportation theme is consistent with theme model constructs found in GDF. It includes the ISO development. 19133 linear referencing clause. An implementation specification based on OGC GML is anticipated. ISO 19133 Linear Referencing data standard. Provides a International Detailed standard, generalized content format for Organization for evaluation http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/st specifying a location, applicable to most any Standardization (ISO) dsdevelopment/techprog/ linear referencing method. Technical Committee workprog/TechnicalProgram TC211 (Geographic meProjectDetailPage.Technical information/Geomatics) ProgrammeProjectDetail?csnu mber=32551

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15 Table 2. (Continued). Developer/ Screening Schema/Standard (Links) Content Participants Results aecXML common object Architecture, engineering, and construction aecXML Detailed schema industry schema. Provides a content format evaluation for specifying building, plant, infrastructure, http://www.iai-na.org and facility information. aecXML Infrastructure Project Infrastructure project schema. Provides a aecXML Detailed content format for specifying infrastructure evaluation (unpublished) projects. AASHTOWare Trnsport XML Schema exists for construction contracts, American Association of Detailed project cost estimates, and daily work reports. State Highway evaluation Trnsport includes a broader construction Transportation Officials management data model from which (AASHTO) additional schema could be generated. Specific evaluations were completed for: Bid subcontract commitment; Construction project and contract information; Construction contractor employee payroll submission format; Construction project payment item cost estimates; Construction project daily work report; Construction project payment financial format; Construction project proposal elements (including payment items); Construction project proposal bid format; and Construction project subcontract format. AASHTO BRIDGEWare No XML Schema, but standard data American Association of Detailed structures have been established that could State Highway and evaluation provide a basis for a schema. Transportation officials (AASHTO) Data domain for bridge design/rating (Virtis/Opis) covers superstructure description for common types of girder bridges. Work on substructure domain is in progress. Data model for bridge inspection, needs analysis and project planning is part of the Pontis portion of BRIDGEWare. NCHRP 12-50 XML standard Data structure (including an XML National Cooperative Detailed representation) for bridge analysis and rating. Highway Research evaluation http://www4.trb.org/trb/crp. Includes specification information for steel Program (NCHRP) nsf/All+Projects/NCHRP+12- girder and pretensioned prestressed concrete 50 girder type bridges. (continued on next page)

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16 Table 2. (Continued). Developer/ Screening Schema/Standard (Links) Content Participants Results NCHRP 20-7, Task 149 The data model provided in the appendix of National Cooperative Detailed this report starts with the AASHTO Highway Research evaluation SteelBridge XML (proposed) Virtis/Opis data model and adds on specific Program (NCHRP) http://www4.nas.edu/trb/ classes related to fabrication and construction crp.nsf/All+Projects/ of steel bridges. NCHRP+20-07#149 American Institute of Steel Standard for steel construction data exchange American Institute of Reference Construction (AISC) CIS/2 across CAD and analysis programs. This Steel Construction (AISC) standard was referenced in the draft final http://www.aisc.org/ report for NCHRP 20-7, Task 149. Since this standard is related more to buildings than transportation, a detailed review was not conducted. American Iron and Steel Effort to develop standardized XML Workgroups at the AISI Reference Institute XML standard terminology to be used throughout steel- web site related transactions documents. http://xml.coverpages.org/ aisi.html Because there appears to be limited recent development of the guidelines for this workgroup and it does not appear to be implemented a full evaluation was not conducted. Global JusticeXML Comprehensive schema and data dictionary U.S. Department of Detailed for data exchange among justice and public Justice Office of Justice evaluation http://it.ojp.gov/jxdm/ safety communities. Includes incident Programs (OJP), Global 3.0/index.html reports, driver histories, arrest warrants. Justice Information Sharing Initiative (GLOBAL), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) AASHTOWare TSIMS The Transportation Safety Information AASHTO/FHWA Reference Management System (TSIMS) is a proposed http://tsims.aashtoware.org/ AASHTO project, and AASHTO will be ContentManagement/ proposing the use of XML in the upcoming PageBody.asp?PAGE_ID=3&T solicitation release as the primary data AB_ID=4 exchange interface between all subsystems. The goal of TSIMS is to develop a uniform http://tsims.aashtoware.org/ approach to management of traffic safety ContentManagement/ information. Guidelines are being developed, PageBody.asp?PAGE_ID=5&T so that any vendor or agency can interface AB_ID=8 existing systems with it. The Object Broker at the core of the TSIMS will use XML for data interchange with outside systems. The entire TSIMS data dictionary will also be XML- compliant. (Please note: As of the time NCHRP 20-64 was completed, the TSIMS project had been discontinued. It is expected that this project will be replaced by a new, reduced scope project entitled "Safety Management System.")

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17 Table 2. (Continued). Developer/ Screening Schema/Standard (Links) Content Participants Results FMCSA In the area of transportation safety, the FMCSA Detailed Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration evaluation http://cvisn.fmcsa.dot.gov/ (FMCSA) has adopted XML as the standard Documents/ data format for moving data between Document_Nav_Frame_Page_ applications. Specific XML applications documents.shtml include Query Central, the Motor Carrier Profile report, the Inspection Selection System http://infosys.fmcsa.dot.gov/ (ISS) data refresh, the Safety Audit upload provu.asp process, and an interagency data exchange to automate driver/vehicle/carrier clearance along the border. Crash Records Markup XML tags for crash records information. University of Florida Detailed Language (CRML) Transportation Research evaluation Center FARS National fatal accident reporting system NHTSA Reference coding manual published with all data ftp://ftp.nhtsa.dot.gov/ elements. FARS/FARS-DOC FRA Standard reporting data formats for railroad FRA Reference accidents/incidents. http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/ officeofsafety/Downloads/ Default.asp Traffic Model Markup TMML is a mechanism to share data among University of Florida Reference Language TMML traffic modeling software products. Transportation Research Envisioned as an XML-compatible language Center http://www.ce.ufl.edu/trc/ prescribing class structure and data element research/tmml.htm tag names required to represent traffic model data, and create output data in format easily rendered by office productivity software. A limitation of TMML is that data must be specified in a separate Traffic Software Data Dictionary (TSDD), which serves as the source for the vocabulary and tags identifying classes and attributes. McTrans has adopted TMML for all of the HCS software modules. SAE ATIS The SAE Advanced Traveler Information SAE Reference Systems (ATIS) standards committee is http://www.sae.org/ developing an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) vocabulary for traveler information exchange. This work builds on the existing data dictionary (SAE J2353), message sets (SAE J2354 and J2369) and other related standards work. Traffic Management Data Traffic Management Center-to-Center AASHTO/ITE Reference Dictionary (TMDD) Communications data dictionary and messages includes XML schema http://www.ite.org/tmdd/ representation. index.asp (continued on next page)

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18 Table 2. (Continued). Developer/ Screening Schema/Standard (Links) Content Participants Results Traffic Software Data Traffic engineering vocabulary, with many FHWA-funded effort Reference Dictionary (TSDD) terms and definitions from the Highway Capacity Manual, FHWA documents, and http://www.tfhrc.gov/its/ CORSIM manuals. its3.htm#traffic The TSDD is documented in P1489 format http://www.signalsystems. and was developed in parallel with the org.vt.edu/documents/Attach/ TMDD. An associated effort, the Traffic Leonard_tsddtsom.pdf Software Object Model (TSOM), contains Unified Modeling Language (UML) object model diagrams that describe object classes, their attributes, and their relationships in the traffic simulation domain. IEEE P1512 Common Incident Management Message Sets IEEE SCC 32 ITS Reference for Use by Emergency Management Centers. http://www.standards.its.dot. Incident Management gov/fact_sheetp.asp?f=12 Working Group UTDF Universal Traffic Data Data exchange between signal controller TrafficWare Reference Format systems and other software. http://www.trafficware.com National Transportation Family of communications standards for AASHTO/ITE/ Reference Communications for ITS message and data transfer between ITS NEMA Protocol (NTCIP) Standards control devices. Includes standards for "Center to Center" communications (e.g., between weather monitoring systems and freeway management systems), and "Center to Field" communications (e.g., between a traffic management center and individual signal controllers). COSMOS/PEER-LL XML schema for geotechnical information. Consortium of Detailed Geotechnical Data XML Organizations for Strong evaluation Schema Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) http://geoinfo.usc.edu/gvdc http://dmrl.usc.edu/pubs/sci 2003-web.pdf Highway Performance Standard reporting format for highway FHWA Reference Monitoring System (HPMS) performance information reported annually by all state DOTs to FHWA. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohi m/hpmsmanl/hpms.htm NCHRP 20-57 This project developed generic tools to NCHRP Reference support asset management, along with a draft http://www4.nationalacademi XML schema for the transportation asset es.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Project performance tradeoff domain. s/NCHRP+20-57

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19 Table 2. (Continued). Developer/ Screening Schema/Standard (Links) Content Participants Results Logistics XML/TransXML XML standard for e-commerce activities of Open Applications Reference shippers and carriers. Group (OAGi) http://www.openapplications. org/wg/LogisticsXML.htm http://xml.coverpages.org/ tranXML.html RecML Recreation One-Stop XML specification that defines terms for Recreation One-Stop Not directly XML recreation areas (parks), facilities (trails, Initiative related to campgrounds, etc.), activities (hiking, wildlife TransXML http://www.xml.gov/ viewing, etc.), alerts (temporary closures), presentations/itpioneers/ events, and similar recreation elements. RecML_files/frame.htm Bridge tions, Driver Information (arrest warrants, and driver his- tory) aspects of safety (as opposed to traffic analysis and The AASHTO BRIDGEWare data model addresses the crash reporting aspects). Analysis and Design, Rating, Inspection, Management, and NHTSA developed MMUCC XML as a subset of the Maintenance topic areas in the Bridge Structures area and Global JusticeXML Data Model (GJXDM)--this XML could serve as the basis for development of XML schemas in schema was released late in the TransXML project and the bridge area. NCHRP 12-50 included development of an therefore was not included in the Task 3 literature review. XML representation of a data structure for bridge analysis The Traffic and Criminal Software package (TraCS) devel- and rating; NCHRP 20-7 Task 149 addresses the bridge con- oped by the State of Iowa in partnership with FHWA struction area--it included a proposed XML standard for includes the MMUCC data elements and an XML data steel bridges based on the Virtis/Opis data model. This stan- export routine. dard referenced an American Institute of Steel Construction The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) standard (CIS/2) for exchange of steel construction data uses XML as a standard data transfer format, addressing across CAD and analysis programs. Another related effort, still in its early stages, is ongoing at the American Iron and the Federal Motor Carrier topic area within the Safety Steel Institute. business area. A portion of the LandXML schema addresses Roadway Information for safety analysis--it is being used in con- Safety junction with FHWA's Integrated Highway Safety Design The topic areas listed in Table 1 for the safety area have Model (IHSDM), to bring in grade information needed for been addressed to some extent by a number of different roadway design safety analysis. efforts. Important standards and guidelines related to trans- The AASHTOWare TSIMS effort produced a preliminary portation safety crash reports include ANSI D16 (Classifica- draft data dictionary with roadway characteristics relevant tion of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents), ANSI D20 (Data to traffic safety analysis. The TSIMS functional design envi- Element Dictionary for Traffic Records Systems), the Model sions extensive use of XML as the means of data exchange Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC), and standard across the different modules of that system. reporting formats defined by NHTSA for the Fatal Accident The IEEE 1512 family of standards cover incident manage- Reporting System (FARS), and by the Federal Railroad Admin- ment, traffic management, and hazardous materials inci- istration (FRA) for its Railroad Accident/Incident Reporting dent response. System. The COMCARE Alliance and the Emergency Interoper- There are several XML efforts related to transportation ability Consortium have produced several XML data safety that are related to the scope of TransXML as follows: standards related to emergency response, including the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP), the Emergency Data The Global JusticeXML effort provides XML schema rele- Exchange Language (EDXL), and Vehicular Emergency vant to transportation safety, with an emphasis on Cita- Data Sets (VEDS).