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46 representing government agencies, software vendors, TranXML/LogisticsXML--TranXML was developed by engineering firms, and academic institutions. There is no Transentric, a company specializing in outsourced rail membership fee, and LandXML operates on volunteer labor. car tracking. The intellectual property for TranXML was An employee of Autodesk has been providing significant acquired in 2002 by the Open Applications Group (OAGi), leadership and support for the effort. a nonprofit industry consortium. OAGi was formed in GML/OGC--GML was authored by a private company February 1995 by a group of enterprise software vendors (Galdos Systems, Inc.). The Open Geospatial Consortium (including SAP and PeopleSoft). Its initial work was funded (OGC) currently maintains the specification through an by these founders and focused on specifications for finan- open working group process. Galdos staff lead this work- cial transactions and supply chain integration. OAGi's ing group and continue to make significant technical and membership currently consists primarily of software vendors marketing contributions. However, the OGC's intellectual and manufacturing companies. A working group within property policy requires that all contributors of technical OAGi is now using TranXML as an input to the development material for adopted specifications provide a royalty-free of a broader LogisticsXML schema. license to any party that wants to use the specification ITS Standards Development--While not necessarily (both OGC members and nonmembers). OGC is a not- related to XML schema, mechanisms for ITS standards for-profit organization founded in 1994, with the mission development also provide useful models for the TransXML of advancing interoperability among IT systems that stewardship investigation. Based on the national ITS process geo-referenced information. OGC currently has architecture, several standards development organizations roughly 250 members, from private industry, govern- (SDO's) are responsible for developing ITS standards ment, and academia. It has a staff of 13 and a 14 member through a consensus process. These SDO's include: the board of directors. Membership in OGC ranges from $300 American Association of State Highway and Transporta- per year for local government staff (nonvoting member- tion Officials (AASHTO), the Institute of Transportation ship) up to $50,000 per year for Principal Members (who Engineers (ITE), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics can chair technical committees and receive support ser- Engineers (IEEE), the Society of Automotive Engineers vices from OGC staff). The OGC operates three programs: (SAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), (1) the Specification Program, (2) the Interoperability the National Electronic Manufacturers Association (NEMA), Program, and (3) the Outreach and Community Adop- and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). tion Program. The Specification Program houses work- This work is done in a collaborative fashion. For example, ing groups that develop Implementation Specifications there is an IEEE Incident Management Working Group (e.g., GML). The Interoperability Program complements which has been responsible for the 1512 family of stan- the Specification Program by organizing experiments, dards. Participants in this group have included FHWA, test beds, and pilot projects (e.g., Geospatial One-Stop, ITE, AASHTO, several state DOTs, public safety agen- LandGML). The Outreach and Community Adoption cies, and ITS industry vendors. Cooperative agreements Program undertakes activities to support widespread use are also a frequently used mechanism; for example, a of OGC specifications (e.g., strategic alliances, conferences, joint ITE/AASHTO steering committee was responsible and seminars). for the development of the Traffic Model Data Dictionary aecXML--The aecXML schema was originally developed (TMDD) and message sets for external traffic management by Bentley Systems, who spearheaded the formation of the centers (MS/ETMC2) standards. aecXML industry consortium. Several working groups were formed to focus on topic areas including design, projects, 6.3 Lessons Learned procurement, and catalogs. The International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) adopted aecXML in 2000. IAI is a pro- It is useful to summarize some key observations related to gram of the National Institute of Building Sciences, a non- stewardship based on the experience gained during NCHRP profit organization. The purpose of IAI is to facilitate Project 20-64. information exchange within the building industry. IAI has a staff of six, and a five-member management committee, Focus on Value Added and a 31-member board, consisting of government and pri- vate industry organizations. IAI's membership fees range It was recognized from the project's inception that sim- from $1,000 to $10,000. Technical activity is performed in ply producing an XML schema will not guarantee that the working groups by members on a volunteer basis. Momen- schema will be adopted or that it will provide value, and sub- tum for maintaining and improving the standards depends stantive stakeholder involvement in schema development is on the sustained energies of these volunteers. essential to success (where success is defined as a critical mass

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47 of adopters resulting in collective time and cost savings). The over to appropriate groups for further development and cer- stewardship function must therefore ensure that resources tification, and to serve as a voice of coordination within the are being devoted to the most promising schema development transportation sector and provide a liaison function across opportunities--where value can be clearly demonstrated and different schema development efforts. widely understood. It must also devote considerable resources to communication--through multiple channels. Recognize Distinct Communities Within Transportation Need to Coordinate with Related The scope of TransXML includes a collection of schema Standards Efforts that have distinct (though in some cases overlapping) sets of The second observation is that the scope of TransXML stakeholder communities. While schema for highway design, touches many areas where schema and standards already bridge design, construction management, and safety may all exist, and therefore the future TransXML project must work be relevant to transportation agencies, they are of interest to within the environment of existing schema and standards very different groups/individuals within those agencies, and development efforts that are now occurring within various there are distinct private sector and academic communities communities: across these areas. If and when the scope of TransXML broadens further (as intended), this disparity will increase. Design/Survey--LandXML is an established interchange Therefore, the nature of TransXML may be more one of a standard, with an established national (and international) coordinated federation of communities rather than a single stakeholder community. TransXML can participate as cohesive group working towards a specific product. This is a stakeholder in LandXML, but cannot and should not an important characteristic to keep in mind in evaluating control schema development in this arena. stewardship options. Location Data--The OGC's GML effort and the Geospa- tial One-Stop Initiative are defining open standards and Marketing and Communication Are Key XML encodings for geographic information. TransXML should be a consumer of these efforts, and not attempt to A key finding of NCHRP 20-64 was the need to aggressively duplicate or conflict with the work that is occurring. address the marketing and promotional aspects of Trans- Safety--The Global JusticeXML effort is gaining accep- XML. The TransXML website presence that was established tance and visibility, and is being used as the basis for the and maintained in NCHRP 20-64 proved to be reasonably National Information Exchange Model (NIEM), jointly effective in promoting collaboration among willing and inter- sponsored by the Departments of Justice and Homeland ested parties, but recruiting and encouraging the participa- Security. For the safety business area, NCHRP Project 20-64 tion of such parties was more difficult than anticipated. A adopted the NHTSA MMUCC XML schema based on the substantial effort (well beyond that which was originally bud- GJXDM. Future TransXML efforts in the safety arena will geted) was required to raise awareness of the project to a need to stay coordinated with related JusticeXML (GJXDM) point at which members of the stakeholder community began developments and NIEM developments. to participate in the technical aspects of the project, and the ITS--ITS standards work is ongoing within numerous resulting participation was generally neither intensive nor standards development organizations (SDO). Some of this maintained over time. work is highly relevant to the longer-term objectives of A major reason for this is that there are two different pop- TransXML. A future TransXML steward must determine ulations of individuals who need to be addressed in outreach its appropriate role with respect to ITS XML schema and and communications: industry and agency management and its relationship to efforts being coordinated by the ITS IT leaders, and technical staff. The former category of indi- Joint Program Office. viduals has the broader interests of their agencies at heart, and is most influential in decisions about investments in software Even though the intent is for TransXML to be an umbrella and information technology. Communications to these indi- for development of XML schema for transportation applica- viduals must focus on these overall organizational benefits, tions, it cannot fully control its world. Several of the logi- and drive the commitment of resources and attention to cal building blocks for transportation XML schema are and important technical issues. The latter individuals are the ones will continue to be developed through outside efforts. This who are able to deal with XML schema at a detailed technical implies that part of TransXML's role might be to fill gaps that level. This is a relatively small population; only a limited sub- are not being addressed elsewhere, to serve as a "skunk works" set of software and IT professionals in transportation agen- for developing schema and applications that then get turned cies (a) are technically qualified to contribute meaningfully to