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9 SECTION 2 Surface Transportation Data Exchange Needs 2.1 Overview approved. Thus, design data needs to be exchanged across multiple software tools that support individual specialties on The research statement for Project 20-64 identified four a repetitive basis. These needs include exchange of informa- business areas within surface transportation as the initial tion between geographic information systems and CAD tools. focus for TransXML: roadway survey/design, construction/ A two-way data exchange between the surveyor and designer materials, bridge structures, and transportation safety. The is required. The surveyor provides the designer with informa- different elements of these business areas are shown in Table 1 tion about the existing characteristics of the construction site. (which appears in the preceding section). While these selec- Once the design is complete, the designer provides the surveyor tions cover only a subset of the surface transportation domain, with information required for construction stake out. they provided a representative cross section of transporta- On completion of the design, there is a need to communi- tion facility life-cycle phases as well as transportation facility cate information about the design to the prospective construc- components. tion team. The project can be viewed as a set of components or This section introduces the four business areas from the construction items, each with a requisite amount of relevant perspective of potential data exchange requirements. Then, information to be tracked and communicated. The compo- it provides a high-level view of other areas of surface trans- nent items determined for bidding during the design phase portation that should be considered as part of future work on transition into the components required for tracking con- TransXML. struction progress and payment during the construction phase. Quantity takeoff, estimating, and specifications represent 2.2 Roadway Survey/Design data exchange opportunities in preparation for bidding and contracting. In addition, geometric descriptions used in engi- Roadway design information includes horizontal and verti- neering calculations during design provide the basis for stake cal centerline alignments, other aspects of the roadway geom- out calculations during construction. etry such as cross section, subsurface, and superelevation; and information about ancillary components such as pavement, 2.3 Transportation shoulders, curbs, sidewalk, drainage pipes, and structures. Construction/Materials There are three important sets of data exchange require- ments for roadway survey/design: information sharing among Data in the transportation construction/materials area different members of a design team; information sharing includes both physical and business representations of a con- between the road surveyor and designer; and finally, informa- struction project. The physical view incorporates plans and tion transfer from design into the construction phase. specifications created in the design process and adds more Information about the roadway alignment from roadway specific information on materials placement and testing. The designers needs to be shared with numerous other disciplines, business view overlays information needed to bid, schedule, such as bridge engineers, right-of-way specialists, drainage monitor, inspect, and manage the work. experts, soils engineers, traffic operations, and traffic safety As noted above, there are significant opportunities for effi- analysts. This communication begins during preliminary ciency improvements by automating transfer of information design as the alignment first begins to take shape and pro- from design into the construction phase. Use of surface mod- gresses as the detailed design evolves until a final design is els produced in design for grading equipment machine control