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50 GLOSSARY Anchoring--technique used to enable respondents to see Multi-method recruitment--survey respondent recruitment how they previously responded to the same question. strategy incorporating multiple recruitment sources such Branching--technique used to direct respondents to specific as e-mail, telephone, in-person, mail, etc. subsequent questions depending on how they responded to Panel--already collected sample source. an initial question. Panel survey--group of individuals or businesses that are Cascading style sheets--language to describe the presentation surveyed repeatedly. of a web-based document (i.e., colors, fonts, layout) enabling Point-in-polygon--determination whether a given point in the separation of the document content from the presenta- the plane, such as a respondent's address, lies inside, out- tion, thereby improving accessibility and flexibility while side, or on the boundary of a polygon, such as a trans- reducing complexity and repetition in structural content. portation analysis zone. Commuter sheds--patterns (often in the form of geographic Psychographic questions--questions designed to charac- information system plots) of home originations for the terize respondents based on attitudes, interest, behavior, journey to work to a particular location. and preferences to create detailed portraits of the Convenience sampling--sample where the respondents are respondents. selected based on the convenience of access and availabil- Sample--all units of the population that are drawn for inclu- ity for the researcher. sion in the survey.* Coverage error--error that results when every unit in the Sample bias--error that arises where data are skewed when population does not have a known, non-zero chance of the sample is not representative of the target population. being included in the sample.* Sample frame--list from which a sample is to be drawn to Cross-sectional panel--panel comprised of a subset of the represent the survey population.* population at one point in time. Sample population--all of the units (individuals, house- E-mail blacklist--list of e-mail addresses that have been holds, and organizations) to which one desires to general- identified by a blacklist organization as sending unwanted ize survey results.* or otherwise abusive e-mail. Sampling error--result of collecting data from only a subset, E-mail sender authentication--tool to help verify the Internet rather than all, of the members of the sample frame.* domain in an e-mail sender's address, and thereby verify Screener--part of a survey that establishes the criteria for the sender's identity. respondents. Fare media--non-cash transit fare payment products. Sender authentication--program similar to a bonded sender Geocoding--process of assigning geographic coordinates program whereby one applies for approval, and once e-mail such as longitude and latitude to street addresses and other practices have been audited and accepted, applicant is added points and features. With geographic coordinates, the fea- to a whitelist, allowing e-mail messages to pass by spam tures can then be mapped and entered into geographic filters. information systems. Split sample--sample split into two independent groups for Geographic information systems (GIS)--systems for creating purposes of comparison. and managing spatial data and associated attributes. Stated preference survey--survey designed to measure the Geo-location--science of determining geographic location. relative importance of different attributes to understand Heuristic--technique designed to solve a problem, providing consumer preferences. a good solution to a simpler problem intersecting with the Survey nonresponse error--error that represents a failure to solution to a more complex problem. obtain information from elements of the population that Intercept surveys--surveys conducted in person to randomly were selected. selected respondents at a site-specific location. Target population--population that the researcher wants to Item nonresponse--error caused by respondents skipping survey. questions or failing to complete a questionnaire. Total population sampling--survey of all the respondents in Longitudinal panel--panel observed at intervals over long the sample frame. periods of time. Unit nonresponse--error caused by over- or under-representation Multi-method administration--survey approach incorporating of groups in the survey sample. multiple methods, such as surveys administered through the * Definitions adapted from Dillman, Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design web, telephone, on paper, or through in-person interviews. Method (1).