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SPACE STATION ENGINEERING DESIGN ISSUES Report of a Workshop November 7-11, 1988 Irvine, California Workshop Committee on Space Station Engineering Design Issues Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a priorate, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract NASW-4003 between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Academy of Sciences. Additional copies of this publication are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 89-62778 Printed in the United States of America First Palming, August 1989 Second Printing, Aptil 1990

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Workshop Committee on Space Station Engineering Design Issues DUANE T. McRUER (Chairman), President, Systems Technology, Inc. BARRY W. BOEHM, Chief Scientist, TRW Defense Systems Group DANIEL B. DEBRA, Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University C. CORDELL GREEN, Director, Kestrel Institute RICHARD C. HENRY, Lieutenant General, U.S. Air Force (Retired) PAUL, D. MAYCOCK, President, PV Energy Systems, Inc. JOHN H. McELROY, Dean of Engineering, University of Texas--Arlington CHESTER M. PIERCE, Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard University THOMAS P. STAFFORD, Lieutenant General, U.S. Air Force (Retired) LAURENCE R. YOUNG, Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Director of the Man-Vehicle Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ASEB Technical Liaison BYRON K. LICHTENBERG, President, Payload Systems, Inc. Staff RICHARD M. OBERMANN, Study Director JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Secretary 111

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Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board ALBERTUS D. WELLIVER (Chairman), Vice President, The Boeing Company EUGENE E. COVERT (Vice-Chairman), Professor and Head, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ELIZABETH E. BAILEY, Dean, Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie-Mellon University JAMES M. BEGGS, Consultant RICHARD G. BRADLEY, Director, Aerospace Technology, General Dynamics Corporation BERNARD BUDIANSKY, Gordon McKay Professor of Structural Mechanics, Abbott and James Lawrence Professor of Engineering, Harvard University ROBERT H. CANNON, JR., Charles Lee Powell Professor and Chairman, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University RICHARD W. HESSELBACHER, Executive Vice President-- Programs' Fairchild Space Company BYRON K. LICHTENBERG, President, Payload Systems, Inc. ROBERT G. LOEWY, Institute Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STANLEY MARTIN, JR., Technical Director, Bell-Boeing Joint Program Office JOHN H. McELROY, Dean of Engineering, University of Texas-- Arlington DUANE T. McRUER, President, Systems Technology, Inc. GARNER W. MILLER, Senior Vice President, Maintenance and Engineering, USAir GEORGE W. MORGENTHALER, Associate Dean for Research, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Professor and Chairman, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado HARVEY O. NAY, Director of Engineering, Piper Aircraft Corporation FRANK E. PICKERING, Vice President and General Manager, Aircraft Engines Engineering Division, General Electric Company R. BYRON PIPES, Dean of Engineering, University of Delaware 1V

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ANATOL ROSHKO, Theodore Von Karman Professor of Aeronautics, California Institute of Technology RICHARD S. SHEVELL, Professor, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University THOMAS P. STAFFORD, Lieutenant General, U.S. Air Force (Retired) Liaison Member FRANKLIN K. MOORE, Joseph C. Ford Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University (Sabbatical at NASA Headquarters through September 1989) ASEB Staff ROBERT H. KORKEGI, Director JOANN C. CLAYTON, Senior Staff Officer RICHARD M. OBERMANN, Senior Staff Officer ANNA L. FARRAR, Administrative Assistant JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Secretary ELIZABETH LEE, Senior Secretary v

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Contents Executive Summary, 1 1. Introduction, 9 Background, 9 Approach, 11 General Design Issues, 15 Crew Safety, 15 Ground Verification of Elements, Assemblies, and Operations, 16 Reliance on Models and Modeling for Verification, 16 On-Orbit Assembly, Integration, and Verification, 16 Software Environment, 17 Resource Adequacy and Allocation for Space Station Assembly and Operations, 17 "Insurance" Alternatives for Flight-Critical Systems, 18 Standards and Commonality, 18 Design for Future Refurbishment, 18 3. Issues Related to Utilization and Operations Requirements for the Space Station, 19 Design Reference Missions, 21 Assembly Phase Requirements, 22 Assembly Sequence, 22 Premature Flight Telerobotic Servicer Launch, 22 Assembly Phase Utilization, 23 Mature Utilization and Operations Requirements, 24 Microgravity Environment, 24 Crew Utilization, 25 Commonality, 27 Logistical Resupply, 27 Contingency Planning, 28 Evolutionary Phase Requirements, 29 Essential Evolutionary Capabilities, 29 Heroic Evolution, 29 e e V11

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4. Issues Related to Systems Requirements and Design, 31 Systems Architectural Concerns, 31 Systems Requirements, 31 Systems Interactions, 32 ~ Allocation of Systems Requirement Impacts, 33 Modeling, 34 Growth Flexibility, 35 Specific Systems Issues, 35 Software and Data Management, 35 Overview, 35 Software Risk Management, 37 Software Development Schedules and Uncertain- ties in Application Software Requirements, 38 Software Support Environment, 39 Software Design for Supportability, 39 Software Integration and Verification, 40 Space Station Information System Services, 41 Communications and Tracking, 42 End-to-End Considerations, 42 Electromagnetic Interference, 43 Automation and Robotics, 45 Premature Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Launch, 45 Solution-Driven Versus Problem-Driven Approaches to Automation Initiatives, 45 Advanced Automation Targets and Products, 46 Advanced Automation and Robotics Plan, 46 Electrical Power System, 47 Thermal Control System, 48 Environmental Control and Life Support System, Man Systems, and Extravehicular Activity System, 49 Overview, 49 Microbial and Toxin Control in the Space Station, 49 In-Space Testing of Life Support Systems, 50 Medical Evacuation, 50 Human Factors and Habitability, 50 Radiation, 51 Extravehicular Activity, 51 Fluid Management System, 51 ~ vail

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5. Management Issues Relevant to Design, 53 Impact of the Internal NASA Culture on the Space Station Program, 54 o Background, 54 o Impact of Management Complexities on the Space Station Technical Program, 55 Impact of Program Instabilities on the Space Station Technical Program, 56 Management of Free-Flying Platforms, 57 Associate Contractor Relationships, 58 Technical Management Process, 58 System Specification, 59 Integration and Verification Management Plan, 59 Communications and Data Systems, 60 Supplementary Discussion, 61 Materials, 61 Health Maintenance, 62 Toxic Materials Handling, 62 Potential Incompatibility of User Requirements, 63 Crew Safety, 63 Appendixes A. Letter from the NASA Office of Space Station, 65 B. Statement of Task, 67 C. Presenters at the Workshop, 69 Abbreviations/Symbols, 71 Acronyms, 73 Selected Material Used at the Workshop, 75 1X

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