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14 and explicit knowledge is continually developed as a neces- ity management requirements, organizations must develop sity to decision making and innovation. As a high-level qual- business processes for handling knowledge assets. ity management document, it does not provide specific tools and techniques, leaving that for individual organizations to The five-part European Guides to Good Practice in Knowl- work out within their own context; however, because these edge Management, published by the European Committee for standards are being adopted worldwide means that specific Standardization, fills a gap between ISO 9004 and an organi- KM business processes are also being implemented by orga- zation's specific implementation of KM. The framework or nizations worldwide. context within which KM is a business process, at both the organizational and the personal level, is carefully laid out Often, standards such as ISO 9004 are regarded as a require- within a strong overall business focus. This is important. As ment. For example, organizations seek certification when they seen from the questionnaire results, there is inadequate have met the requirements of certain standards. However, stan- implementation of KM among STAs as an intentional, pur- dards also can be used as references, especially as a starting poseful business process. Questionnaire results show that point when an organization is developing a new business STAs do not routinely view knowledge as an asset of suffi- process or making substantial changes. These documents typi- cient importance to warrant agency-wide attention. STAs cally do not detail exactly how to execute management pro- wanting to understand the KM business process may find cesses or specific practices, but they do specify what types of these Guides useful. processes are necessary or recommended. Therefore, it is not suggested, for example, that STAs adopt any single standard or Gleaning some key concepts from these Guides, it is noted set of standards as a requirement within their own STA. It is not that the organization needs to define its mission, vision, and necessary to actually seek ISO 9000 certification, for example, strategy with regard to KM. A culture of motivation, in which to make use of the ISO quality management standards. people are respected, feel a sense of trust, belonging, and empowerment is necessary. Knowledge activities are seen However, in the case of standards issued by the ISO, it is as an integral part of a wider business process, and should noteworthy that to become certified an organization must be value adding, clearly communicated, understood, and implement the specific business processes detailed in the accepted. Roles and responsibilities must be made clear. standard. At the end of 2004, 670,399 certificates had been Individuals need to be acknowledged and rewarded for awarded worldwide to business and industry, non-profit, and their contributions. The environment must be conducive government organizations. The ISO website also notes that for people meeting, working together, and sharing ideas there has been a transition, and as of 2004 the service sectors and experiences. are by far the biggest users of the standards, as compared with the manufacturing sectors that were formerly the pre- Furthermore, as for any other business process, the Guides dominant users (see http://www.iso.org/iso/en/commcentre/ indicate that there must be measurements of effectiveness. pressreleases/archives/2005/Ref967.html). This widespread Technology and infrastructure must be in place to support adoption of a standard in which knowledge is spelled out as an the business process. Nontechnical facilities such as dedi- important business asset that must be managed is significant cated meeting rooms, help desks, and office spaces arranged and points to a growing understanding of the necessity of devel- oping business processes to accomplish a task. to stimulate knowledge-sharing behavior are also needed. Knowledge assets must be captured so that they will remain The Malcolm Baldridge Award is given by the President when the employees depart. The Guides discuss change man- of the United States to businesses--manufacturing and ser- agement, because implementation of a KM system will vice, small and large--and to education and health care orga- inevitably require changes, perhaps even in the basic beliefs nizations that apply and are judged to be outstanding in seven and behaviors of management and employees. areas: leadership; strategic planning; customer and market focus; measurement, analysis, and knowledge management; According to Davenport (2005), KM business processes HR; process management; and results. The award process cannot simply be imposed on top of existing processes. de examines the management, effective use, analysis, and im- Holan et al. (2004) assert that tacit knowledge must be articu- provement of data and information to support key organization lated and made explicit. The whole process must be routizined processes and the organization's performance management and codified. Explicit knowledge must be communicated. In system (see http://www.quality.nist.gov/). other words, the whole process involves systems thinking and institutionalization of processes. LITERATURE SURVEY SUMMARY: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS BUSINESS PROCESS Gordon and Grant (2005) provide us with basic under- standings about some of the challenges around the concept As seen, ISO 9004 Quality Management Systems--Guide- knowledge-as-power, which they discard for a better approach: lines for Performance Improvements sets the stage for wide- knowledge-as-strategy. Gupta and Govindarajan (2000) warn scale implementation of KM. Although it does not describe us that technology infrastructure is not the answer, but the specific processes, it indicates that to meet the general qual- enabler.