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15 Hammer et al. (2004) articulated that the goal is to get more just "data," necessitating applications of taxonomies, out of the organization's knowledge assets. The need is to superior searching capabilities, etc. improve the performance of the end-to-end business process · Development of numerous startups, pilots, small work by eliminating non-value-adding work. Indeed, Kucza (2001) unit efforts, etc. without a coherent enterprise-wide strat- spelled out such a systems approach by defining a KM busi- egy or a "systems thinking" holistic approach. ness process model. · Inability of a small KM work unit to handle the work- load required to get KM practices sufficiently developed Taken together, this brief summary of the literature sur- so that they can be spun off to work units. vey regarding KM as a business process indicates the · Insufficient effort by KM specialists to spin off prac- necessity of developing an overarching business process, tices and develop ownership by affected group, thereby rather than a piece-meal "bottoms up" or even "middle out" freeing themselves up to develop new initiatives. approach. The annotated literature survey gives much more supporting evidence. LITERATURE SURVEY SUMMARY: HUMAN RESOURCE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LITERATURE SURVEY SUMMARY: BARRIERS TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT A review of our literature survey annotations reveals that KM has evolved from focusing on IT to a focus on document The European Guide to Good Practice in Knowledge Man- and content management. Most recently, the people-centric agement, Part 2: Organizational Cultural reviews the com- approach has joined these earlier disciplines to create a more mon barriers to the implementation of KM as a business coherent holistic process. process (p. 7): Leonard-Barton (1995) relatively early on articulated the · Time and priority; importance for KM of the people-centric view, especially for · Difference between management statements and actions; all managers and levels of managers, as opposed to the com- · An enduring notion that "knowledge is power"; monly held view at the time that IT managers were mostly · Apathy about sharing knowledge; responsible. Gilmour (2003) also recommended a shift from · "Not invented here" syndrome; the "publishing" model to the brokering model, based on col- · Reward systems that mitigate again knowledge sharing; laboration management. · Differing cultures and subcultures; · Knowledge travels by means of language, and there may Australian Standard AS 5037 focuses on "the continuum not be a common organizational language; of the knowledge ecosystem" (p. 18). It calls for an environ- · Considering the organization to be "machine-like"; ment where the organization is "knowledge aware." There is · Organizational "amnesia"; fluidity about the organization and it can adapt readily to · Growth in "virtual" working can hinder as well as help; external factors. Networks can form, de-form, and re-form, · Overemphasis on technology or inadequate supporting according to their own life cycle (p. 19). technology; and · Knowledge does not grow forever, and organizations There are barriers to inserting people-centric approaches. and individuals should unlearn and leave behind old According to the European Guide to Good Practice in ways of thinking. Knowledge Management, Part 2: Organizational Culture (pp. 1213) these can include: In the course of this research, interviews, and personal reflection, other impediments to strong business process · Illusion of invulnerability implementation were observed, including: · Collective rationalization · Illusion of morality · "Hero" syndromes. · Shared stereotypes · A system in which individuals believe that they must · Direct pressure remain indispensable and therefore do not or will not · Self-censorship share knowledge. · "Mind guards," where people screen out information · Employees seeing knowledge work as added on to an from outsiders that challenges the group's assumptions already over-full plate. and beliefs · Lack of balance among disciplines; that is, over- · Illusion of unanimity. reliance on IT as driver and not as enabler, over- reliance on documentation, or overreliance on people- The document goes on to discuss that these barriers can to-people approaches. be mitigated by forming communities of interest, practice, or · Insufficient IT skills to develop sophisticated databases purpose. Values, belief, and trust come into the process. So that handle textual information as something other than do leadership styles; the credibility of leaders especially, but