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16 also of individuals; and motivation that surpasses the stress LITERATURE SURVEY SUMMARY: SUCCESS inherent in the change process. Some useful tools for strength- FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUCCESSFUL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ening the people-centric approach are: The following list is derived from many sources given in the ˇ Community building, literature surveys' toolbox of success factors. ˇ Observing and questioning, ˇ Coaching and mentoring, Cross and Baird (2000) ˇ Narrative, and ˇ Managers determine which lessons are worth learning ˇ Conversation and dialogue. ˇ Managers deliberately develop organizational memory ˇ Personal relationships are turned into organizational LITERATURE SURVEY SUMMARY: know-how TRANS-DISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ˇ Knowledge rapidly finds its way into a distributed KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT database ˇ Learning processes are quickly structured to incorpo- In chapter eight, "Reflecting" (Australian Standard AS 5037), rate new knowledge into daily activities it states that KM promises deeper insights into an organiza- ˇ New knowledge is constantly embedded into databases, tion's content and culture and its surrounding ecosystem than other business processes. This chapter reviews the emer- work processes, support systems, products, and services gence of KM as a discipline in the 1990s. Two strategies ˇ Leverage the knowledge in databases with technology emerged: the first focused on collection, storage, and reuse of that enables dialogue. explicit knowledge in documents and IT systems. Much of the data gleaned from the STAs in this synthesis fell into this cat- Davenport and Glaser (2002) egory. NASA and the World Bank both started at that point ˇ Specialized knowledge is baked into the jobs of highly in their own KM developments. The NASA interview skilled workers by embedding it into the technology revealed that its engineers and other technical professionals workers need to do their jobs expressed frustration over the inability to find documents they ˇ Ensure a measurement-oriented culture knew existed; therefore, the first order of business for the KM ˇ Ensure IT professionals know the business as well as Office was to correct that. The World Bank did the same the technology. thing, institutionalized it as a day-to-day ongoing operational process, and then went on to more people-centric processes. Davenport et al. (1998) ˇ Money is saved or earned--evidence of financial gain The second early strategy focused on connecting people ˇ Broad infrastructure of both technology and organization to people, where KM was seen as a social communication ˇ Balanced structure that is flexible and evolutionary process with emphasis on tacit (personal) knowledge. ˇ Knowledge is easy to access ˇ People are positive about creating, using, sharing Today, KM is a blending of these alternatives within spe- knowledge cific organizational contexts, and concentrates on a balance ˇ Project contains motivators among the four elements: people, process, technology, and ˇ People may use multiple channels to transfer knowledge content (Australian Standards AS 5037-2005, p. 60). The ˇ Growth in number of resources Australians have contributed much to our understanding with ˇ Growth in volume of content the publication of this standard, which is not prescriptive, but ˇ There is strong likelihood the project will survive with- a guideline. out support of particular individuals ˇ Pervasive desktop and communications technologies All organizations require an influx of knowledge from the ˇ Established roles and organizational groups whose mem- outside in an organized, systematic manner to refresh them. bers have skills to serve as resources for others Librarians and professionally managed libraries can play a ˇ Structured repository with categories, key terms, key role in the KM business process. indexes, etc. ˇ Responsibility for controlling decisions about knowl- Newer skills involving classification, ontology, thesaurus edge structure assigned construction, and information architecture development are ˇ "Knowledge-friendly" culture important for constructing useful electronic repositories. ˇ "Hero" mentalities are avoided NASA and the World Bank are both developing integrated, ˇ Use language common to company culture transactional databases that pull together multiple repositories. ˇ Raw, undistilled data does not get into repository For example, when searching for potential team members, ˇ Concepts are framed in business terms employees can résumés, project documents, accounting charge records, and understand other data can be pulled together to create a composite view of ˇ Incentives and motivational aids are not trivial and are an individual's expertise. tied to overall evaluation/compensation system