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17 Senior managers send message that KM is crucial to Employees use good judgment in deciding between organization, provide funding and other resources, clar- internal and external resources ify what types of knowledge are important. Coaching draws competence from the recipient Storytelling is encouraged Zack (2003) Good meeting skills are developed Attention is paid to application of existing knowledge IT tools used for collaboration, knowledge capturing Attention is paid to creation of new knowledge IT systems have sufficient buy-in for long-term usability. Worrying is not about "who works for whom," but on "who needs to work with whom" Organization learns from customers LITERATURE SURVEY SUMMARY: SPECIFIC Information is extracted from outside organization KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES KM activities are aligned with the organization's This research did not reveal a better compendium of spe- strategy cific tools and techniques for KM than Australian Standard Internal and external knowledge gaps are recognized AS 5037-2005 Knowledge Management (2005, pp. 3552). and closed Some are more people-centric, some emphasize people-to- Mission and purpose are defined in terms of knowledge documents or explicit content, and still other are specific Position within the industry is defined in terms of technological efforts. This document is probably the single knowledge Strategies are formulated with knowledge in mind most useful document referenced in this report. It approaches Customers are segmented by how much can be learned KM as an "ecological" process that integrates a rich, eclectic from them diversity of people-centric, people-to-documents or content Organization is transformed into a learning organization and technological approaches. The document lists, together Cost of learning is seen as an investment, not a cost with descriptions, what are termed "enablers"--specific prac- HR management is taken seriously tices that together underlie the KM business process. Not only Business model is thought out, taking knowledge into is this an excellent list of practices, but it also shows how var- consideration. ious professional disciplines underlie the entire KM process. European Guide to Good Practice in Knowledge Manage- After-action reviews ment, Part 2: Organizational Culture (2004) Business process mapping Barriers have been investigated and addressed Champions and advocates Individuals understand and can respond appropriately Change management to cultural dynamics Communities of interest High emotional intelligence Communities of practice Actions show recognition of the importance of rela- Content management tionships between individuals, working groups, organi- Critical incident technique zations, and interorganizations Document management Policies and behaviors indicate an awareness of and Environmental scanning ability to support knowledge Information auditing Use of informal and formal time encourages knowledge Knowledge auditing sharing Knowledge literacy Organization is seen as dynamic entity with key points Knowledge mapping of expertise Leadership Organization is structured in line with knowledge Learning and development strategies Leveraging information repositories Individuals are coached into appropriate behaviors Meetings and "share fairs" Leadership qualities are valued and developed Mentoring and coaching Credibility is important Narrative management Recognition is a social benefit of effective communities Networks and communities of practice Physical environment Motivation is strongly linked to personal recognition Play theory Importance of knowledge in developing competencies Reflection understood Rewards and recognition Importance of sharing knowledge is made clear to staff Social network analysis Concepts and practices of a learning organization are Storytelling understood Strategic conversations Policies and management support developing com- Taxonomies and thesauri munities Technological integration

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18 Technologies for communication and knowledge sharing Some of Rao's (2004) ideas may seem somewhat "wild" Technologies for discovery and creation or foreign to many of us--one has to wonder about a serious, Technologies for managing repositories. sober transportation engineer using "art," "theatrical tools," or "poetry" to share his/her knowledge with others! However, Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques: Practi- a HR manager was observed using just such an approach to tioners and Experts Evaluate KM Solutions (Rao 2004, convey just what the company's "return on equity" goals really pp. 121) is also a rich source of tools and ideas. Included meant, cutting through obtuse financial jargon to present a are examples and case studies. Rao provides the following memorable lesson. tool categories, with some specific examples for each in- cluded here: APQC hosts an excellent website that contains many ideas for tools. Another excellent "idea central" type of website is the Content management--codification; authoring templates; "Specialist Library for Knowledge Management" from the UK multiple content types; sources; corporate libraries; per- National Health Services. (Note the URL and other informa- sonnel directories; videos; company policies; external tion can be found in the annotated reference in Appendix L.) and internal websites; presentations; press releases; powerful abstracts; successful practices; innovations; lessons learned; meta-data features including classifi- Content Management Practices cation, tagging, and validation; and web portals. Knowledge taxonomies--tools with pre-built tax- Content management techniques may be overlooked in the onomies; tools with dynamically and automatically gen- current rush to apply people-centric approaches. Here is where erated taxonomies; and using these tools with human Boiko's book, Content Management Bible (2002), comes to interventions, context-sensitive taxonomies, manual the rescue. Not quite a recipe book, but close, he details how classification of content, clearly stated meta-data require- one can actually create a content management system. ments, and terminology standardization. Groupware--tools for affinity building, knowledge Nor should the Transportation Research Thesaurus be mapping, threading, polling, group/collaborative docu- overlooked. It is a well-developed meta-data tool, providing ment creation, e-mail, instant messaging, and meeting a specialized list of transportation-related terms, organized in thinking sessions. hierarchical fashion, for use in taxonomy work, indexing, or Online communities of practice--web-based communi- as an authoritative source of words and terms for writers and ties, peer-to-peer sharing of insights, best practice editors. Use of such a thesaurus ensures consistency among sharing, knowledge sharing, innovation, learning, collab- multiple indexes and can pull together many different kinds oration, accountability rather than anonymity in knowl- of media into one topical framework. edge networks, expertise directories, and networked vir- tual environments. ANSI/NISO Z39.85-2001 Dublin Core Metadata Set: An Enterprise portals--IT platforms of choice, on-demand American National Standard (ISO 2001) provides a method workplace, single points for interaction and collabora- to adequately describe information and knowledge resources tion, transaction capability, management of digital assets, for future discovery. Anyone working in a database/Internet and binding together of various content and collaboration environment should be familiar with this standard, which has activities. been adopted at the national level in the United States and is Social network analysis and design--knowledge flows, used worldwide. identifying gaps, surveys, recommender systems, role development, connectivity of workers, degrees of sep- Perhaps Zack (1999) summarized it best when he listed aration, and exchange of knowledge. the four primary resources for explicit KM: e-learning--interleaving of learning and working, antic- ipate training needs, and bridge between classroom and on-the-job training. Repositories of explicit knowledge; Storytelling and narratives--art and graphics, theatri- Refineries for accumulating, refining, managing, and cal tools, poetry, creating conversations, participatory distributing the knowledge; observation, anecdote circles, organizational metaphors, Organization roles to execute and manage the refining knowledge blogging, break down silos, and descriptive process; and language. Information technologies to support the repository and Wireless tools for knowledge mobilization--mobile processes (p. 47). technologies, real time, function across boundaries of space and time, and continuous economy. According to Zack the repository of explicit knowledge: Innovation and idea management systems--an "idea central," a "hundred-headed brain," responsible trans- Needs structure and content, parency, access to experts, serendipity, innovative cul- Is a "knowledge platform" from which many views of ture, drawing on past innovations. the knowledge can be derived,