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19 Uses the repository's structural element as the knowl- European Guide to Good Practice in Knowledge Manage- edge unit, ment, Part 4: Guidelines for Measuring KM is an excellent Is indexed with appropriate concepts and categories, source for measurement techniques. The steps for identifying Should accommodate date changes, and measures are (p. 10): Must accommodate additions to knowledge. Defining your goals, In addition, according to Zack Identifying the stakeholders for your measures, Defining the measures, The knowledge platform may consist of several reposi- Deciding what data will be collected and how it will be tories, each appropriate to particular content. collected, The knowledge refinery represents the process for creat- Analyzing and communicating the measures, and ing and distributing knowledge contained in the reposi- Reviewing the combination of measures. tory. Roles must be assigned to ensure responsibilities are clear. The Guide contains descriptions of some well-known The IT infrastructure provides the pipelines for the flow measurement approaches including: of explicit knowledge (pp. 4750). (Emphasis added by the author.) The Intangible Assets Monitor (focuses on a few rele- vant indicators depending on organizational strategy). Communities of Practice The Skandia Navigator (focuses on a collection of criti- cal measures--financial, customers, processes, long-term Mike Burk has long been organizing communities of practice sustainability, human focus--that comprise a holistic (COPs) at FHWA. The reader will find details about these view of performance and goal achievement). programs elsewhere in this report. Burk (2003) thoroughly The Patton Approach (based on best practices from described what COPs are and how to make them effective. research, practitioners, experiences, expert opinion, Snyder and de Souza Briggs (2004) present what is almost a lessons learned, etc.). "cookbook" on how to organize COPs on a sustainable basis. A list of methods and tools for collective knowledge Hammer (2005) emphasizes the need for an executive spon- evaluation. sor to ensure that participation in COPs is supported and that the organization will get a return on its investment. Because this document is readily available, the measure- ment approaches are not described in detail here. Suffice it to say that Chapter 4 in the Guide lists 25 typical measures and LITERATURE SURVEY SUMMARY: MEASURING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS key performance indicators. Appendix l is a good example of a diagnostic tool called "the Knowledge Quick Scan." The Liebowitz (2005) cites an example of how to measure KM. reader is encouraged consult the actual document for specific He chooses a KM initiative, and then defines system mea- details. sures, output measures, and outcome measures. His method- ology can be extended to any KM initiative. For example, for The FHWA Knowledge Sharing Initiative, which is the the initiative "communities of practice" he gives a "ratio of terminology used for FHWA's KM program, uses the bal- number of members to the number of contributors" as one anced scorecard method to assess its progress in improv- system measure. An output measure example would be the ing business results through better knowledge exchange "attrition or turnover rate," and an outcome measure might within FHWA and in the larger highway community. It uses be "savings and/or improvement in organizational quality four quadrants to organize its results: customer results, and efficiency" (p. 37). This source may not be a cookbook; business results, initiative growth and processes, and out- however, a careful reader can extrapolate from it and develop reach and leadership activities (FHWA Knowledge Appli- measures appropriate to his or her environment. cation, 2005, p. 1).