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22 CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS REGARDING THE EXISTENCE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS: QUESTIONS 25 SUMMARY OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS However, the questionnaire results show that although REGARDING EXISTENCE OF KNOWLEDGE STAs have some local KM activity, most of those reported MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS activity at different levels of development, indicating that some practices within individual STAs have evolved into an Questions 2, 3, and 4 on the questionnaire provided an overall enterprise-level business process, whereas others have not. assessment of whether or not a KM-related program exists in This may indicate that KM activities are carried out in a each STA and, if so, to what extent. Of the 38 responding bottom-up or middle-out manner, or even by individual STAs, 19 reported the existence of some formal KM program "champions," but that KM as a business process is not driven at varying levels within the organization. STAs that answered from the executive level as a core business process. Consid- "no" to all of these questions were asked to cease taking the ering that 11 STAs reported programs at more than one level, questionnaire and to return it. Figure 2 shows the nature of the one can conclude that KM programs are not commonly embed- existing programs. Note that although the option was not given ded as an enterprise-level business management process (see on the questionnaire, several states reported that some aspects Table D1). The data show a lack of an overall organizational of their programs are enterprise-wide and others are in one of level of purposefulness or intentionality regarding knowledge the other phases. For example, Arizona and Kansas reported as a valuable, strategically important asset requiring a business the existence of both an "enterprise-wide program" and an management process. "enterprise-wide program in rollout phase or unevenly devel- oped among divisions." See Table D1 for detailed results for each individual STA. WHOM OR WHERE IS YOUR STATE TRANSPORTATION AGENCY INSTITUTIONAL It is likely that some practices are carried out within STAs MEMORY POINT OF CONTACT? by certain departments or even at the individual employee level. It may be that such activities are not recognized as As a follow-up to Questions 24 regarding the existence of falling under the KM umbrella or are so informal that they are recognized KM programs, Question 5 simply tried to find out not generally recognized by the broader organization. Note, who or where is the point of contact to which individual however, that the wording in the questionnaire for these ques- employees turn when they need historical information or tions emphasized that although terminology may differ from documents about previous programs or projects. Table E1 in STA to STA, the nature of the activities and practices was Appendix E gives detailed results by STA. what was important. Thirty-three STAs responded to this question, with the The comments (see Table D2) also show fragmented majority making multiple selections. Figure 3 summarizes programs with some work units carrying out specific activ- the overall results. ities, but showing a general lack of enterprise-wide imple- mentation. There are some exceptions: Virginia, for example, Note that in the comments (see Table E2), eight STAs with its Knowledge Management Office, is moving toward a reported the library as the central functional unit. Others indi- knowledge-oriented organizational culture. Elsewhere in this cated records management, archives, or combinations of units. report is documented an interview with the Virginia Knowl- Again, because most STAs made multiple choices, the results edge Management Officer. During the course of this research, probably can be summarized as "it depends." Because the two it was learned indirectly that Maryland, although not respond- most-selected choices were "go to different work units depend- ing to the questionnaire, has launched a startup pilot KM ing on what is needed" and "on an informal basis go to knowl- program that is from inception being seen as an enterprise- edgeable individuals or supervisor," the response indicates that wide endeavor. Texas has several initiatives that are well when it comes to finding existing information, the individual enough developed that they may coalesce into an overarch- employee probably has to know where to go in advance for any ing program in time. Ohio also appears to be moving in that hope of success. This finding is reinforced by the 13 selections direction. for "spend a lot of time trying to figure out where things are."

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23 12 10 8 No. of Programs 6 4 2 0 Enterprise- Enterprise- Active, ongoing Active pilot Have pilot but wide, active, wide program KM program or or startup that not likely to be ongoing program but in roll-out or elements thereof probably will be extended beyond or elements of unevenly developed in certain divisions extended more its current scope such a program among divisions. In or work units widely throughout process of extending the organization FIGURE 2 Existing knowledge management programs. 30 25 20 No. of Selections 15 10 5 0 Central Divisional level Go to different On informal Spend a lot Other functional work unit or work units, basis go to of time trying unit individual depending knowledgeable to figure out with KM on what individuals or where things are responsibilities resource is supervisor for that division needed FIGURE 3 Who or where is your organization's institutional memory point of contact (multiple selections allowed).