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40 will evaluate the pilot project and incorporate findings into the Know the "knowledge transfer cycle: Create, Identify, implementation guide. It will be the strong champion for KM. Harvest, Filter & Organize, Share, Adapt, Use." Understand that the KM cycle starts with a people-to- people focus during which knowledge is discovered on FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION the job through experiences, insights, and lessons learned. Next, the knowledge is demonstrated in local During the course of the research, there were informal con- use, through methodologies, emerging best practices, versations and sharing of informal documents with Mike and success stories. Finally, there must be the people- Burk, Chief Knowledge Officer of FHWA. The FHWA KM to-documents phase, in which the knowledge is estab- program focuses on facilitating knowledge exchange both lished and is in widespread use, with a high degree of within FHWA and in the highway community. An early proj- structure and approval. It is made explicit by being ect was the "Rumble Strip Initiative," started in 1998. A COP embedded in established policies, procedures, processes, was formed. FHWA partnered with other organizations that data, and training. The whole cycle is unending because assisted in establishing a framework for KM within FHWA's of constant change and new learnings. existing culture, and in constructing and hosting a communi- cation tool for peer-to-peer exchange. The exchange capa- According to Mr. Burk, knowledge enables us to take bilities included knowledge regarding rumble strips, com- action to produce positive results. He gave informal exam- munity resources such as web links, rumble strips providers, ples, such as knowing when to use open-graded pavements etc., and provided a communication tool. This early initiative to help with drainage problems or knowing which option to evolved into a template for subsequent COP tools for han- use when improving visibility--trim trees? Improve sig- dling discussions, references, works in progress, a directory nage? Install traffic devices? of community members, and an e-mail subscription service. Other COPs evolved from that early initiative. Both qualita- Note that the FHWA Knowledge Sharing Initiative has been tive and quantitative outcomes were measured. One piece of recognized for its leadership, including receiving the APQC's advice is that the communities themselves must "own" their Best Practice Partner for Communities of Practice award. communities; for example, selecting their own leadership, agendas, and goals. TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION According to Mr. Burk, the FHWA KM initiative uses a Based on procedural documents forwarded by the Texas balanced scorecard approach to assess progress in improving DOT (TxDOT) and comments accompanying the returned business results through better knowledge exchange. The survey, there is in TxDOT an example of a robust startup or balanced scorecard uses a qualitative and quantitative mix of pilot project that may lead to more extensive KM initiatives. measures. A forensic pavement KM system (KMS) has been developed for the TxDOT. The Center for Transportation Research at Other themes that emerged from our informal communi- the University of Texas actually conducted the work. This cations were: KMS is the first within TxDOT and is expected to set the stage for applying KM principles throughout the organization. Focus on critical business areas. The scope of the project includes identifying sources of valu- Create web templates to facilitate fast implementation able forensic pavement knowledge; developing methodology of new COPs. for capturing that knowledge through interviewing, systematic Use technology as an enabler, not in a lead role. classification, and codification; transferring that content to the Promote a culture in which knowledge sharing, as TxDOT Learning Content Management Systems; and mak- opposed to knowledge hoarding, is encouraged and ing related forensic pavement data and information sources. rewarded. It is expected to be a framework for maintaining and sys- Get senior level buy-in. tematically updating KMS content, and for marketing this Focus on people. pilot system throughout TxDOT's pavement community Tie KM to corporate strategy. and beyond. The project will be a coordinated effort involv- Use tools to facilitate the capture of explicit knowledge ing expertise from the fields of forensic pavement analysis, for knowledge reuse. library science, marketing, IT, and training. Although this Keep management in a supporting but not controlling report has focused for the most part on enterprise-wide KM role. programs, TxDOT's program is noteworthy because it is a Recognize those that demonstrate an exemplary attitude source of lessons learned about KM implementation. Also, it for community and sharing. is trans-disciplinary in that a number of professionals have Measure results to determine how KM practices affect been purposefully brought together to meld their skills into business outcomes. this project. Although a more holistic approach is probably Move into a sustaining and evolving mode to match COP better, this is a good example of units doing KM work on a members' ever-changing needs and business goals. smaller scale.